Improving Life Outcomes through Self-awareness, Stress Management and Social Competency

By | NESCA Notes 2019 | No Comments

By Dot Lucci, M.Ed., CAGS

Currently many school districts have social-emotional learning (SEL) goals as part of their mission. They include goals, such as students will: think critically and solve problems; communicate and collaborate effectively; attend to physical, social and emotional health; contribute to and care about their community and world; and, recognize the uniqueness and dignity of individuals of differing religions, classes, ethnicities, sexual orientations, learning abilities and more. These goals are part of what is expected in our workforce and as citizens in general. If children and adults could attain these goals, our world would be a more tolerant and compassionate place.

Given the neurological, psychological, behavioral or cognitive challenges many students diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), nonverbal learning disorder (NLD), intellectual disability (ID), anxiety, depression, etc. may have, they will often experience difficulty attaining these goals. Direct teaching as well as embedded instruction of Mindsets, Essential Skills & Habits (MESH) and SEL is imperative for these students to succeed in school, relationships, work and in their own quality of life. In fact, MESH and SEL can help all students with or without special needs. Students of today become the adults of tomorrow. With SEL and MESH instruction, they become mindful, compassionate and socially competent adults – and potentially leaders!

In our consultation work with schools, NESCA focuses on three primary areas that we call the 3-Ss: self-awareness, social competency and stress management. Many adults with learning or developmental challenges have not yet reached their potential because they struggle in one or more of these areas. They do not know who they are and “what makes them tick,” or understand that stress is a part of life that we all deal with. They may struggle to recognize that getting along with and being kind and respectful to others is a necessary part of life, even when we do not agree with others. Some of these adults have advanced degrees but sadly cannot get or keep a job or a relationship. By directly addressing the 3-Ss, we help individuals develop life-long skills to be the best they can be.

Self-awareness

Self-awareness is the ability to recognize one’s strengths/challenges, interests, likes/dislikes, learning style, personality and more. It allows us to self-reflect and accurately identify emotions and thoughts and how they influence our behavior. Being optimistic when dealing with life’s setbacks is also central to self-awareness. As we mature, the ability to make responsible decisions – constructive and respectful choices about personal behaviors based on safety concerns, ethical standards and social norms – also falls under self-awareness.

The earlier we begin to help children develop self-awareness, the better off they are in the long run. Teaching them about their personalities earlier allows them to understand themselves better and themselves in relation to others. Through consultation, we normalize the neurodiversity of learners in a classroom. For example, we may have everyone (teachers and students) complete a learning style checklist and discuss the variety of learning profiles in a class. This makes self-awareness more concrete and accessible to all students.

Social Competency

Social competency allows self-awareness to be applied in relationships with others. Social competency is the ability to establish and maintain healthy and rewarding relationships with others in one’s family, school, community and work. It is what allows us to demonstrate perspective-taking and empathy with others of diverse backgrounds and cultures. It includes knowing the social and cultural norms of behavior and also understanding why demonstrating those matters and helps us to communicate clearly, listen actively, negotiate conflicts, cooperate with others, and ask for help when needed. It can also include nonverbal cues and communication when sharing space with others, which is what makes it possible to ride on public transportation, wait in line, ride in an elevator, watch a movie at a theatre, etc. – all in accordance with unwritten, hidden, yet expected social norms. It is critical to work on social competency from preschool through middle and high school and beyond as the expectations and challenges change throughout our lives – and as we change, too.

Stress Management

No matter how self-aware someone is, stress happens and we need to learn to cope or we will suffer both physically and psychologically. Stress is neither good nor bad – it just is. Therefore, stress management is critical to living a life that is as healthy and satisfying as possible. Stress management is the ability to identify one’s emotions, thoughts, feelings and behaviors, and to regulate them effectively – identifying internal and external triggers, controlling impulses, motivating oneself and developing a toolbox to cope with stress. By teaching stress management skills early on, we help children identify how stress feels in their bodies and how our bodies and emotions are linked. All too often, we tell children to “calm down” without teaching them how and what that actually means. If we teach children and adolescents a variety of ways to calm themselves (breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, mindfulness, exercise, problem solving, etc.), and we offer regular opportunities to practice these skills in a range of settings and activities, our hope is that they will gravitate to those techniques and eventually use them independently and successfully. Teaching children about resilience and optimism is key so they can cope when adversity happens – as we know it will.

By highlighting the 3-Ss in our work, we have witnessed significant growth and a positive impact on students’ learning and ultimately their lives. By directly modeling and teaching these MESH skills, students diagnosed with disabilities improve their understanding of self, others and their ability to manage stress and cope with adversity. We are fostering the development of the adults of tomorrow.

To learn more about NESCA and its consultation services, visit: https://nesca-newton.com/.

To learn more about SEL and MESH, visit:

 

About the Author:

NESCA’s Director of Consultation and Psychoeducational Services Dot Lucci has been active in the fields of education, psychology, research and academia for over 30 years. She is a national consultant and speaker on program design and the inclusion of children and adolescents with special needs, especially those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Prior to joining NESCA, Ms. Lucci was the Program Director and Director of Consultation at MGH/Aspire for 13 years, where she built child, teen and young adult programs and established the 3-Ss (self-awareness, social competency and stress management) as the programming backbone. She also served as director of the Autism Support Center. Ms. Lucci was previously an elementary classroom teacher, special educator, researcher, school psychologist, college professor and director of public schools, a private special education school and an education collaborative.

Ms. Lucci directs NESCA’s consultation services to public and private schools, colleges and universities, businesses and community agencies. She also provides psychoeducational counseling directly to students and parents. Ms. Lucci’s clinical interests include mind-body practices, positive psychology, and the use of technology and biofeedback devices in the instruction of social and emotional learning, especially as they apply to neurodiverse individuals.

 

To book a consultation with Ms. Lucci or one of our many expert neuropsychologists, complete NESCA’s online intake form. Indicate whether you are seeking an “evaluation” or “consultation” and your preferred clinician/consultant in the referral line.

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

The Use of Adaptive Behavior Rating Scales in Neuropsychological Assessment

By | NESCA Notes 2019

By Jason McCormick, Psy.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist

In my work as a neuropsychologist, much of my practice involves assessment geared toward transition planning – the move from high school to college or from high school to the working world. For these cases, I find the use of measures of adaptive behavior skills – day-to-day skills associated with self-care, communication, community navigation, home living, socialization, use of leisure time, and functional academics – to be a critical part of the neuropsychological testing battery.

Historically, adaptive behavior rating scales were developed and primarily used for assessment of intellectual disability. While adaptive behavior has taken rightful prominence in the assessment and diagnosis of intellectual disability – overtaking the importance of intelligence testing – the use of adaptive rating measures also proves quite important to help with transition planning for individuals with a wide range of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental presentations, including those with exceptionally strong cognitive skills.

These measures (e.g., Adaptive Behavior Assessment System – Third Edition; Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales – Third Edition), which take the form of parent/caregiver or teacher questionnaires/structured interviews, yield detailed information about an adolescent’s readiness for their upcoming transition out of their family’s home. Particularly for bright adolescents with strong academic skills who might, say, present with attention and executive function challenges but have largely been successful in school, an assessment of adaptive behavior skills is often overlooked. However, over the course of my career, I have heard multiple stories of students who have seemed “college-ready” in the traditional sense of the word (i.e., strong academic and cognitive skills) but have suffered “failure to launch” experiences, as they had not learned to take their prescribed medications consistently, never learned to self-regulate their sleep schedule, or were well behind in their capacity to strike a balance between work and leisure activities.

Although the scores obtained on these measures can be a helpful guide, I find that a closer look at the specific components that may point to a need for additional skill development can help generate a sort of “to-do” list for transition planning work. Thus, while at times simply confirming an adolescent’s suspected transition readiness, the administration of an adaptive measure often proves to be a valuable tool to help determine what skill areas need to be targeted prior to the transition and/or supported during the transition.

 

About the Author:

McCormick

Dr. Jason McCormick is a senior clinician at NESCA, sees children, adolescents and young adults with a variety of presenting issues, including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), dyslexia and non-verbal learning disability. He has expertise in Asperger’s Disorder and has volunteered at the Asperger’s Association of New England (AANE). Dr. McCormick mainly sees individuals ranging from age 10 through the college years, and he has a particular interest in the often difficult transition between high school and college. As part of his work with older students, Dr. McCormick is very familiar with the documentation requirements of standardized testing boards. He also holds an advisory and consultative role with a prestigious local university, assisting in the provision of appropriate academic accommodations to their students with learning disabilities and other issues complicating their education.

To book a consultation with Dr. McCormick or one of our many other expert neuropsychologists, complete NESCA’s online intake form.

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

State Dyslexia Laws – What do they aim to do and how can we aid their success?

By | NESCA Notes 2019

 

By: Angela Currie, Ph.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist, NESCA
Director of Training and New Hampshire Operations

While in 2013 there were only 22 states that had laws regarding dyslexia, as of March 2018, 42 states have dyslexia-specific laws, and as discussed in the article Dyslexia Laws in the USA: A 2018 Update by Martha Youman and Nancy Mather, 33 legislative bills related to dyslexia were introduced between January and March 2018 alone. These dyslexia laws address such things as dyslexia awareness, teacher training, early screening of risk factors, interventions and accommodations, and rights of individuals with dyslexia. In addition to identifying the need to address these matters, at least 10 states have developed dyslexia handbooks, and New Hampshire (where I practice as an evaluator and consultant) has developed a dyslexia resource guide. With Governor Charlie Baker’s signing of S2607 on October 19, 2018, Massachusetts now joins the list of states with dyslexia training, screening, and intervention mandates.

To see such progress in the identification and intervention of dyslexia is exciting for everyone who is connected to this community. As a pediatric neuropsychologist, I have worked with individuals with dyslexia and related disorders for many years, and in 2017 I had the pleasure of being one of the many professionals involved in the development of the NH dyslexia resource guide. Since that time, it has been encouraging to see a number of school districts embrace training opportunities and develop early screening efforts. While that is so, across the nation several states still do not have dyslexia-specific laws, and most states that do have them continue to experience uncertainty about how to implement said laws. Based on my personal experience and observations, there appear to be some basic steps or efforts that may improve the effectiveness of these efforts:

  • Use the term “Dyslexia.” Historically, the term “dyslexia” has been rejected or discouraged by most schools, instead preferring to label the associated learning profile as a Specific Learning Disability in reading; however, dyslexia specialists and advocates have long argued that this latter term is problematic because it fails to acknowledge the neurobiology of dyslexia and it does not inform interventions, accommodations, and related services with the level of specificity that is dictated by the defined diagnosed label. To address this concern, in 2015 the U.S. Department of Education issued a formal letter clarifying that “there is nothing in the IDEA or [the] implementing regulations that would prohibit IEP Teams from referencing or using dyslexia, dyscalculia, or dysgraphia in a child’s IEP.” Until schools are willing to routinely use the term “dyslexia,” the potential success of dyslexia laws is significantly challenged.
  • Educate families about universal screening and differentiated instruction. The screening and intervention requirements outlined in most dyslexia laws fall within the purview of general education, aiming to identify children with risk factors for learning disabilities and support their needs through multi-tiered systems of support, such as Response to Intervention (RTI). As such, there are not as many defined requirements regarding progress monitoring and reporting, or the coordination of the child’s “team” (i.e. parents, teachers, and other pertinent school personnel), as there would be within special education procedures. Families need to be educated about these universal screening procedures and methods of differentiating instruction within the general education curriculum so that they can understand their child’s challenges and monitor progress in a more informed manner.
  • Coordinate general education and special education screening and evaluation procedures. While the screening and intervention procedures discussed in dyslexia laws are generally within general education, a child should be referred for special education consideration if he or she is not making progress with the increased levels of RTI support. To optimize the utility and impact of the early screenings and to ease the referral process, the criterion that is measured within the general education setting should map onto the criterion for special education eligibility as much as possible; however, should a child require referral for special education consideration, it will also be critical to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of why the child is not progressing, allowing for more individualized and appropriate interventions.
  • Ensure the dissemination of dyslexia handbooks or resource guides. While the dyslexia community is enthused by state dyslexia laws, many teachers and school personnel are not aware of these mandates or the associated resources. These resources are a treasure trove of information about how to delivery differentiated instruction and integrate instructional methods and accommodations that are likely to be helpful for all students.
  • Continue raising awareness. Parents, teachers, and school personnel should all be educated about learning profiles, early warning signs, screening procedures, and interventions. School districts should take advantage of the resources provided by their state, which often includes the availability of a state-appointed reading specialist who can provide training or aid the dissemination of information or development of screening and intervention procedures.

There has been great progress in the recognition, identification, and remediation of dyslexia within American schools; however, this work is only just beginning. At the core of this issue is the need to recognize dyslexia as a defined, neurologically-based learning disability that can be identified at an early age and can be effectively remediated through targeted, evidence-based interventions.

Through our evaluations with students in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, clinicians at NESCA aim to identify and define learning profiles such as these and provide recommendations for targeted instruction as well as systemic support and training. Please visit our website at www.nesca-newton.com for more information.

 

About the Author:

Dr. Angela Currie is a pediatric neuropsychologist at NESCA. She conducts neuropsychological and psychological evaluations out of our Londonderry, NH office. She specializes in the evaluation of anxious children and teens, working to tease apart the various factors lending to their stress, such as underlying learning, attentional, or emotional challenges. She particularly enjoys working with the seemingly “unmotivated” child, as well as children who have “flown under the radar” for years due to their desire to succeed.

 

To book an evaluation with Dr. Currie or one of our many other expert neuropsychologists, complete NESCA’s online intake form. Indicate whether you are seeking an “evaluation” or “consultation” and your preferred clinician in the referral line.

 

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Londonderry, NH, Plainville, MA, and Newton, MA serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call (603) 818-8526.

What is executive functioning? – Part 2 – How can adolescents develop these important skills?

By | NESCA Notes 2019

By: Alissa Talamo, PhD
Clinical Neuropsychologist, NESCA

Cody is a 17-year-old young man participating in 11th grade. He is a talented runner with a good sense of humor and he has achieved mostly Bs in his college preparatory and advanced college preparatory high school classes. However, Cody’s mother describes him as the kind of kid whose “head would fall off if it was not attached.” Cody has an English tutor who has helped him to organize his thoughts and writing throughout high school. He seems to run out of time with everything—homework, tests, showers, video games—unless his parents and teachers provide him with several reminders. He also has trouble starting and finishing tasks, even things that are important to him. For example, he wanted to apply for a job at Market Basket. His mother has emailed him the online application link three times, but he still had not completed it after two months. Cody wants to go to college and is hoping to be recruited by a men’s cross country team. So, his parents took him to see a neuropsychologist to see if he could qualify for extra time on the SAT. They had heard the term executive functioning and knew that this was an area where Cody struggled, but they did not realize how significant his challenges were until the neuropsychologist shared his test results. Cody and his parents were grateful to have a better understanding of Cody’s learning strengths and challenges and also to learn that executive functioning skills can be remediated throughout the lifespan.

What is executive functioning?

Part 1 of this blog defined executive functioning as the “conductor” of all cognitive skills and identified three main components:

  • Working memory (the ability to hold and manipulate information in your mind),
  • Inhibitory control (inhibiting impulsivity, to pause and think before reacting),
  • Cognitive flexibility (the ability to adjust to changing demands).

Part 2 of this blog post highlights activities suggested to enhance the development of executive functioning and self-regulation skills during adolescence (taken from developingchild.harvard.edu booklet titled “Enhancing and Practicing Executive Function Skills with Children from Infancy to Adolescence.”). The full guide is available for download and describes many additional activities and games that provide ways for adults to support various aspects of executive functioning and self-regulation in adolescents (Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University, 2014). While neuropsychological evaluation can be extremely important for understanding an adolescent’s executive functioning profile and planning for postsecondary education, there are a number of activities that young people can work on at home in order to build their executive functioning skills.

Here are some examples of activities suggested for adolescents:

  • Goal setting, planning and monitoring
    • Help the adolescent identify short and long-term goals and think about what has to be done to achieve them.
    • Help adolescents be mindful of interruptions (particularly from electronic communication such as email and cell phones).
  • Activities
    • Sports — The focused attention and skill development inherent in competitive sports improve the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ actions, make quick decisions, and respond flexibly.
    • Yoga and meditation — Activities that support a state of mindfulness may help teens develop sustained attention, reduce stress, and promote less reactive, more reflective decision-making and behavior.
    • Strategy games and logic puzzles — Classic games like chess exercise aspects of working memory, planning, and attention.
  • Study skills
    • Break a project down into manageable pieces.
    • Identify reasonable plans (with timelines) for completing each piece.
    • Self-monitor while working
    • When you don’t understand, what might be the problem? Do you know what the directions are? Is there someone you can ask for help?
    • Think about what was learned from an assignment that was not completed well. Was this due to a lack of information, a need to improve certain skills, bad time management, etc.?
    • Keep a calendar of project deadlines and steps needed to complete along the way
    • Identify ways to reduce distractions (e.g., turn off electronics, find a quiet room).

Are you concerned your adolescent’s trouble with getting organized, starting tasks, or keeping his/her emotions in check could be related to executive functioning issues?

There are many things you can do to get the answers you need to best help your adolescent. The most comprehensive way to assess a child’s executive functioning difficulties and determine a cause is a neuropsychological evaluation. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation is made up of a set of tests, questionnaires, interviews, and observations that a clinician will use to gain a good understanding of a young person’s strengths and weaknesses, along with learning how the individual processes information and completes tasks. At NESCA, we offer comprehensive evaluations that can look for potential learning disabilities, attentional difficulties, and other challenges that can negatively impact a child’s executive functioning development. In addition, a NESCA evaluation will include explicit recommendations to address challenges that have been identified.

Also, if you want to learn strategies for helping a teenager or young adult develop executive functioning skills, read Part 1 of this blog!

About the Author:
Talamo

With NESCA since its inception in 2007,  Dr. Talamo had previously practiced for many years as a child and adolescent clinical psychologist before completing postdoctoral re-training in pediatric neuropsychology at the Children’s Evaluation Center. After receiving her undergraduate degree from Columbia University, Dr. Talamo earned her doctorate in clinical health psychology from Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Yeshiva University. She has given a number of presentations, most recently on “How to Recognize a Struggling Reader,” “Supporting Students with Working Memory Limitations,” (with Bonnie Singer, Ph.D., CCC-SLP of Architects for Learning ), and “Executive Function in Elementary and Middle School StudentsDr. Talamo specializes in working with children and adolescents with language-based learning disabilities including dyslexia, attentional disorders and emotional issues. She is also interested in working with highly gifted children.

 

 

 

To book a neuropsychological evaluation or consultation  with Dr. Talamo or one of our many other expert neuropsychologists, complete NESCA’s online intake form. Indicate that you would like to see “Dr. Talamo” in the referral line.

 

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

What is executive functioning? How do I help my child develop these important skills? – Part 1

By | NESCA Notes 2019

By: Alissa Talamo, PhD
Clinical Neuropsychologist, NESCA

Alexis is a 5-year-old girl midway through kindergarten. She is well-liked, social, and has a strong vocabulary for her age. But her kindergarten teacher has noticed that Alexis has some difficulties in the classroom. Alexis raises her hand often during circle time, but when she is called on she  usually freezes or contributes something unrelated to the class discussion. Alexis also frustrates easily. When her first attempt at an art project doesn’t look like the example, she will throw it away or ask to do something else. And when she is given a multi-step direction to put her work away and get on her coat to go outside, she usually stops working but doesn’t move until she sees what her peers are doing, then she will follow along. Alexis’ parents have always noticed similar challenges at home such as giving up on difficult activities, forgetting where she has left her toys, and freezing when given too many choices or directions. But until her kindergarten teacher mentioned these classroom challenges, and they took her to see a neuropsychologist to better understand her classroom struggles, they did not realize that there was a name for her difficulties: Alexis is struggling with executive functioning.

What is executive functioning?

Executive functioning can be considered the “conductor” of all cognitive skills. Research has shown that executive function and self-regulation skills are critical for learning and development and help a person manage life tasks of all types.  While humans are not born with executive function skills, we are born with the potential to develop them. Moreover, studies show that we can continue developing the skills throughout our lifespans.

Executive function and self-regulation skills include three key components:

  • Working memory (the ability to hold and manipulate information in your mind),
  • Inhibitory control (inhibiting impulsivity, to pause and think before reacting),
  • Cognitive flexibility (the ability to adjust to changing demands).

While neuropsychological evaluation can be a critical step in learning about a child’s executive functioning skills and gaining recommendations for helping to remediate executive functioning challenges, there are a number of activities that parents can initiate to develop executive functioning skills at home.

Part 1 of this blog post highlights activities suggested to enhance the development of executive functioning and self-regulation skills from infancy through age 12 (taken from developingchild.harvard.edu booklet titled “Enhancing and Practicing Executive Function Skills with Children from Infancy to Adolescence.”). The full guide is available for download and describes many additional activities and games that provide ways for adults to support various aspects of executive functioning and self-regulation in children (Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University, 2014).

Here are some examples of activities suggested for children of different ages.

Ages 6-18 months old

  • Peekaboo —this activity exercises working memory, challenging the baby to remember who is hiding, and also introduces basic self-control skills as the baby waits for the adult to be revealed.
  • Pat-a-Cake — Predictable rhymes that end with a stimulating yet expected surprise. Infants exercise working memory, becoming familiar with the rhyme and anticipating a surprise.
  • Songs or chants with simple hand motions help develop working memory and language. Infants can learn to copy the movements to a song and, with practice, will remember the sequence (e.g., Eensy Weensy Spider; Open, Shut Them).

Ages 18-36 months old

  • Older toddlers can enjoy simple imitation games (e.g., Follow the Leader) which can help develop working memory as well as attention and inhibition.
  • Song games with many movements are also fun (The Hokey Pokey; Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes). These require children to attend to the song’s words and hold them in working memory, using the song to guide their actions.

Ages 3-5 years old

  • Encourage children to tell you stories while you write them down. Also, have the children act out stories they have written. The story provides a structure that guides children’s actions and requires them to attend to the story, while inhibiting their impulse to create a new plot.
  • Play matching and sorting activities that promote cognitive flexibility. Children can first sort or match by one rule (such as by color), and then immediately be asked to switch to a new rule (such as by shape).

Ages 5-7 years old

  • Games that require players to remember the location of particular cards are great at exercising working memory (e.g., Concentration).
  • Games in which the child can match playing cards, either by suit or number, are also good to help strengthen cognitive flexibility (e.g., Crazy Eights, Uno).
  • Games that require attention and quick responses help children practice attention and inhibition (e.g., for younger children – Red Light, Green Light or Duck, Duck, Goose; for older children – Simon Says, Mother May I?).

Ages 7-12 years old

  • Games that require monitoring and fast responses are great for challenging attention and quick decision-making in children at this age (e.g., Spit)
  • Physical activities/games help develop a child’s ability to hold complicated rules and strategies in mind, monitor their own and others’ actions, make quick decisions and respond flexibly.
  • Brain teasers (e.g., Sudoku, Rubik’s Cube) require children to be mentally flexible and consider spatial information.

Are you concerned your child’s trouble keeping his/her emotions in check, answering questions in vague or off-topic ways, managing their belongings, or forgetting what comes next could be related to executive functioning issues?

There are many things you can do to get the answers you need to best help your child. The most comprehensive way to assess a child’s executive functioning difficulties and determine a cause is a neuropsychological evaluation. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation is made up of a set of tests, questionnaires, interviews, and observations that a clinician will use to gain a good understanding of a child’s strengths and weaknesses, along with learning how a child processes information and completes tasks. At NESCA, we offer comprehensive evaluations that can look for potential learning disabilities, attentional difficulties, and other challenges that can negatively impact a child’s executive functioning development. In addition, a NESCA evaluation will include explicit recommendations to address challenges that have been identified.

Also, if you want to learn strategies for helping a teenager or young adult develop executive functioning skills, stay tuned for next week’s edition of NESCA Notes!

About the Author:
Talamo

With NESCA since its inception in 2007,  Dr. Talamo had previously practiced for many years as a child and adolescent clinical psychologist before completing postdoctoral re-training in pediatric neuropsychology at the Children’s Evaluation Center. After receiving her undergraduate degree from Columbia University, Dr. Talamo earned her doctorate in clinical health psychology from Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Yeshiva University. She has given a number of presentations, most recently on “How to Recognize a Struggling Reader,” “Supporting Students with Working Memory Limitations,” (with Bonnie Singer, Ph.D., CCC-SLP of Architects for Learning ), and “Executive Function in Elementary and Middle School StudentsDr. Talamo specializes in working with children and adolescents with language-based learning disabilities including dyslexia, attentional disorders and emotional issues. She is also interested in working with highly gifted children.

 

 

 

To book a neuropsychological evaluation or consultation  with Dr. Talamo or one of our many other expert neuropsychologists, complete NESCA’s online intake form. Indicate that you would like to see “Dr. Talamo” in the referral line.

 

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

Interview with Dina DiGregorio Karlon, NESCA North Transition Specialist

By | NESCA Notes 2019

By: Kelley Challen, Ed.M., CAS
Director of Transition Services, NESCA

 

What are Transition Services?

Transition means the process of moving from one life stage to another. In context to NESCA, we are referring to the transition from high school to post-secondary life, and we specialize in working with nontraditional students who often have had accommodations or special education services. While the prospect of leaving high school is exciting, it can be overwhelming as well. The prospect of figuring out what you want to do with your life causes some level of anxiety in all of us; transition services helps to relieve this anxiety by working with individuals in setting short and long term goals and participating in guidance and psychoeducation related to college and/or employment.

How did you get interested in this field?

Helping people understand their strengths and weaknesses while exploring their vision for adulthood is my passion. Upon reflection, I believe that I have always been a transition specialist, long before there was a name for this work. Having worked with adolescents and young adults for more than 25 years, I understand the demands and expectations placed on them and how that can be daunting. Helping people to recognize that their path may be different than they expected is very rewarding, and I do not take that responsibility lightly.

What do you like about your job?

I particularly enjoy working with adolescents and families through the college process; while the process is not difficult to understand, it is time-consuming and can often feel overwhelming. I enjoy assisting students and helping them to accomplish new tasks. I love to help people identify their strengths and use those to minimize and overcome their challenges. Being able to assist people in setting their own personal goals and achieve them is very gratifying to me. Getting to know new people, teaching important skills, presenting a different perspective, piecing together a plan; these are all things I love about the work I do.

Do you have a specialty? What do you specialize in?

I specialize in both college and career counseling. I am experienced in working with high school students as well as young adults.

What do you enjoy about your job?

I particularly enjoy working with adolescents and families through the college process; while the process is not difficult to understand, it is time-consuming and can often feel overwhelming. I enjoy assisting students and helping them to accomplish new tasks. I love to help people identify their strengths and use those to minimize and overcome their challenges. Being able to assist people in setting their own personal goals and achieve them is very gratifying to me. Getting to know new people, teaching important skills, presenting a different perspective, piecing together a plan; these are all things I love about the work I do.

What brought you to NESCA?

My experience as a school counselor and a vocational rehabilitation counselor have given me a unique skill set and provide me with the experience needed to do transition planning for students who are college bound and also students or adults who are seeking employment or support with career exploration. My passion for working with adolescents and helping them maneuver the challenges of early adulthood matches the philosophy of NESCA and I am eager to work as part of a team of specialists providing this support to young people.

What are you most looking forward to about working full-time at NESCA?

I am excited to work with adolescents to help them with the journey into adulthood. The variety of clients and their needs at NESCA is a real draw for me. Whether my work takes me to teaching a teenager how to do laundry, practicing interviewing for a first job or new school, or identifying a college list, it all sounds challenging and rewarding to me.

Who are your favorite students/clients to work with?

I have a lot of expertise in working with all kinds of students. I have worked with students who have been identified with Autism Spectrum Disorders, ADD/ADHD, mental health disorders, and other profiles. With the myriad of clients I worked with at Vocational Rehabilitation, I have developed a solid understanding of many diagnoses and disabilities and how clients’ lives are impacted by the related challenges. I have often worked with students who face multiple barriers; seeing those students work through their challenges and develop resiliency is professionally rewarding.

What advice do you have for parents or young adults who are not sure if they need a transition specialist?

Working with a transition specialist can be very helpful for parents to understand what their children’s strengths and weaknesses are in relation to adult-readiness. Are they ready for a 4-year college? Do they need a gap year? What would that look like? Do they know how to interview for a job? Do they need help getting a job? Do they know what kind of job fits their skills? Do they know to self-advocate? Do they know how to access resources?

Teenagers will often not work with their parents to do goal setting and transition planning, so having a transition expert to work with can often help. Working with a transition specialist can also be a great step toward a student taking ownership of their future planning and a parent releasing some control and responsibility. Most teenagers or young adults would benefit from doing transition planning; but it is a highly personal family decision as to whether to work with a transition specialist.

If you are not sure if you need a transition specialist, you can always come in for a consultation appointment. This is a one-hour meeting that helps a family determine if this is the right time to work with a transition specialist and what type of transition service may be best. For example, does the family need assessment and a report for an IEP process or just help with appropriate college planning? Talking things through with a transition expert can be extremely helpful for knowing what is needed and when.

We are very excited to announce that as of February 1, 2019, Ms. Karlon is working as a full-time staff member delivering assessment services in the state of New Hampshire and college and career coaching services to clients throughout New England! NESCA is thrilled to be able to offer these expanded transition services in our New Hampshire Office in addition to the services we already offer in Newton, MA.

To schedule an appointment with Dina DiGregorio Karlon in Londonderry, please complete our online intake form: https://nesca-newton.com/intake-form/  The address of NESCA-North is 75 Gilcreast Rd #305, Londonderry, NH 03053.

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

Child Feedback Sessions: How and Why We Explain What Testing Means To Kids

By | NESCA Notes 2019

By: Amity Kulis, PsyD
Pediatric Neuropsychologist, NESCA

“Who get’s the results of the testing, me or my parents?” As a neuropsychologist, clients of all ages ask why they are being tested and who is going to get the information from the testing. Sometimes these questions come from a place of nervousness, while others are asking because they have a general curiosity.

Neuropsychological evaluation is an intensive process where students are trying out all sorts of skill sets, some activities that are familiar (e.g., math problems), and some activities that they will only ever do in the context of an evaluation process (e.g., putting pegs in a pegboard, drawing weird rocketship shaped patterns from memory). Even children as young as elementary school are often curious about the results of the assessment (e.g., how did I do? what were you testing? what is the report going to say?). These are such important questions and I am always excited when the children I am working with are curious about what this all means.

At NESCA, a neuropsychology and integrative treatment practice founded in Newton, MA, we conclude our testing with a parent feedback session where results and preliminary recommendations are clearly presented to parents. This is a conversational format so that we can ensure that there is good understanding and a shared picture of what we have learned about the child. Even with a lengthy conversation, parents often question about how to share the findings with their children because it often results in changes for the child like working with new people or getting more/less or different services at school.

Importantly, we offer child/adolescent feedback sessions for children of all ages. These mini-feedback sessions are presented in a developmentally appropriate manner to share the findings of the evaluation. Often with older children and adolescents this conversation includes discussing any diagnosis that came out of the evaluation. For all individuals the conversation always includes a strengths-based approach highlighting the things the child/adolescent did wonderfully using examples from the testing to explain these strengths and how they might show these skills in real life. Then we move on to also talking about some of the activities that were more challenging and how we envision teachers, providers, or other supports helping them to make progress. For example, a child might do extremely well on tasks of visual problem solving such as recreating block designs or on verbal tasks that ask them to define words, but have greater challenges on tasks that assess processing speed. These findings suggest a child is able to think and problem solve at a high level, yet processes information more slowly and might need more time to show off their strengths when they are expected to produce output. This important difference is so essential to explain to even younger children. Children often value speed over all else, and explaining to them that working slow but producing amazing ideas is a real asset. The same type of careful explanation can be taken when explaining learning disabilities, attentional issues, social difficulties and emotional vulnerabilities. There is a calculated effort to include the child/adolescent in a conversation about their own ideas on how to improve areas of need and I feel this really empowers them to work for the change and positive growth. Plus, these sessions are a great way to gain closure over the experience of testing and allow them to understand what was accomplished and learned through all of their hours of hard work.

About the Author:

Dr. Amity Kulis joined NESCA in 2012 after earning her doctoral degree in clinical psychology from the Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology, with a concentration in Children, Adolescents and Families (CAF). She completed post-doctoral training in pediatric neuropsychology with an emphasis on treating children with developmental, intellectual, learning and executive functioning challenges. She also has extensive training psychological (projective) testing and has conducted individual and group therapies for children of all ages. Before joining NESCA, Dr. Kulis worked in private practices, clinics, and schools, conducting comprehensive assessments on children ranging from toddlers through young adults. In addition, Dr. Kulis has had the opportunity to consult with various school systems, conducting observations of programs, and providing in-service trainings for staff. Dr. Kulis currently conducts neuropsychological and psychological (projective) assessments for school-aged children through young adulthood. She regularly participates in transition assessments (focusing on the needs of adolescents as they emerge into adulthood) and has a special interest in working with complex learners that may also struggle with emotional challenges and psychiatric conditions. In addition to administering comprehensive and data-driven evaluations, Dr. Kulis regularly conducts school-based observations and participates in school meetings to help share her findings and consultation with a student’s TEAM.

 

To book an evaluation with Dr. Kulis or one of our many other expert neuropsychologists and transition specialists, complete NESCA’s online intake form.

 

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

 

Addressing Anxiety through the IEP Process

By | NESCA Notes 2019

By: Erin Gibbons, Ph.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist, NESCA

Anxiety disorders are becoming more and more common among children and adolescents. Recent data from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) reported that 31.9% of adolescents between 13-19 have an identified anxiety disorder. Although fewer statistics are available, it is clear that students who have a developmental, learning, or attention disorder are at high risk for developing clinically significant anxiety in light of their struggles with academics, learning, and/or social development. Given the rising numbers of affected children and adolescents, it has become increasingly important that a student’s emotional health is addressed both at home through private counseling, as well as through the provision of school-based services. When students experience a high level of unmitigated anxiety throughout the day, they are less able to learn and meet their potential.

When parents are seeking services for anxiety through their school system, there are different levels of support. First, teachers can provide classroom supports and address emotional health with all students, whether or not they have an identified anxiety disorder. Some examples of useful classroom strategies include:

  • Create predictable routines and clear expectations.
  • Provide warnings about upcoming transitions.
  • Have a “cool down space” available in the classroom or another room in the school.
  • Incorporate movement into lessons throughout the day.

There are also programs designed to address emotional regulation that can be used throughout the school or district. For example:

If these supports are not sufficient to meet a student’s needs, then it is necessary to develop goals through the IEP process. In order to make needed progress, it is important that the goals and benchmarks in the IEP are specific. For example, a benchmark might state: “Johnny will show better emotional regulation in stressful situations.” A more specific benchmark might state: “When Johnny starts to shut down or refuse to participate during a math class, he will identify his current emotion(s) in 4 out of 5 opportunities.”

When parents seek supports for their child’s anxiety through the IEP, they should consider whether their child needs accommodations, specialized instruction or both.

Examples of accommodations for anxiety include:

  • Extra time in testing situations.
  • Opportunities to take tests in a quiet setting.
  • Access to breaks as needed.
  • Access to the school counselor as needed.
  • Student does not need to sign out of class to use the bathroom.
  • Student is prompted to take breaks when showing signs of distress.
  • Student has modified homework.
  • Teacher will check in with student before independent work blocks.
  • Specialized instruction can be provided in the classroom (push-in) or in a different setting (pull-out).

Push-in services might include:

  • Provision of an instructional aide to support emotion identification and regulation.
  • The school counselor/psychologist works with the entire class once or twice a month to discuss emotional health.

Pull-out services might include:

  • Regular sessions with the school counselor/psychologist.
  • Social skills groups.

Consultation services are also important, especially if a student participates in private therapy outside of school. Parents should consider giving permission for the private therapist to speak with the school counselor to discuss common treatment goals and ways in which the student’s coping skills can be supported and reinforced in school.

About the Author:

GibbonsErin Gibbons, Ph.D. is a pediatric neuropsychologist with expertise in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychological assessment of infants, children, and adolescents presenting with developmental disabilities including autism spectrum disorders, Down syndrome, intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and attention deficit disorders. She has a particular interest in assessing students with complex medical histories and/or neurological impairments, including those who are cognitively delayed, nonverbal, or physically disabled. Dr. Gibbons joined NESCA in 2011 after completing a two-year post-doctoral fellowship in the Developmental Medicine Center at Boston Children’s Hospital. She particularly enjoys working with young children, especially those who are transitioning from Early Intervention into preschool. Having been trained in administration of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), Dr. Gibbons has experience diagnosing autism spectrum disorders in children aged 12 months and above.

Dr. Gibbons recently began serving clients in NESCA’s newest location in Plainville/Foxborough, MA. She is thrilled to bring her expertise in evaluating and supporting children with a wide range of abilities to this area of the state.

 

To book an evaluation with Dr. Gibbons or one of our many other expert neuropsychologists and transition specialists, complete NESCA’s online intake form.

 

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

Why does my neuropsychologist need that? What do the tests measure and why is previous testing important?

By | NESCA Notes 2019

 

By:  Stephanie Monaghan-Blout, Psy.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist

When a family books an intake for neuropsychological evaluation, they are typically asked to complete a few pieces of paperwork and to bring previous testing and other educational documents such as an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for their intake appointment. Despite this request, many parents will come to the intake session with empty hands. Understanding that parents have an enormous number of tasks on their plate, one could expect that paperwork was left at home due to timing or organization difficulties. However, when I ask parents about the missing paperwork decision, the reasons for leaving it behind generally fall into two groups: (1) lack of knowledge about the purpose of testing; and (2) concerns about creating some form of bias in the examiner’s mind. Some parents don’t share prior testing with me because they don’t have a clear idea of what the testing is and how it is going to be used for my evaluation. This is very common with families who are new to the special education or mental health process. Some parents are reluctant to share past testing because they want a “fresh view” and are concerned that looking at someone else’s work may create a bias. This often comes up when there is disagreement between parents and their school or past provider as to the nature of the child’s difficulties. Sometimes the parents and child have had a bad previous experience with testing and/or with the examiner, and they do not feel that the test results accurately (or at least empathetically) describe their child. In any of these situations, I find that parents feel more comfortable if they know more about how the tests we use are developed and why we find it helpful to view previous testing.

Purpose of Testing: The purpose of neuropsychological testing is to find out if a child (or adolescent or adult) is developing skills at a rate and capacity commensurate with their age and ability level. In order to do this in an efficient, equitable, and consistent manner, test developers identify skills they think are important in learning, devise a task that appears to quantifiably measure that skill, give that task to children in different age groups and then transform the raw scores attained by the children into a common scale. This allows them to compare different children within an age group, and this also allows them to compare the same child at different ages. Some common measurement scales are standard scores, scaled scores, Z scores, T-scores and percentiles. All of these formats are based on a normal distribution (remember the bell curve?) in which the majority of scores fall within a certain area with increasingly fewer scores falling at either end. The “bump” where most scores fall is described as average (between 25th and 75th%ile) with the tails receiving an above or below average description. While these descriptions do not begin to capture the whole child, they do convey information about how a child is performing relative to developmental expectations based on what we know about children of the same age. They can also tell us if the child is making age expected progress according to their unique learning curve. Furthermore, most people are good at some things and not so good at others, and the pattern of their scores can often give us valuable information about their learning profile.

Question of Bias: The concern about bias is important, given that neuropsychological tests are often used to classify people and make decisions about providing or denying services. There are a number of ways in which we try to control for bias, starting with trying to make sure that the group of people that are used as test subjects when developing norms are representative of the population at large. Test makers are getting better at this, but we have a long way to go, which means that it is important that evaluators know how each test has been developed and normed. Test selection is also extremely important; some tests are not appropriate for some groups. Think about giving a Calculus test to someone who has not completed Algebra 1; this kind of mismatch is going to result in a spuriously low score on math ability.

The main way that neuropsychologists and psychologists try to control for bias is through what is referred to as standardized administration—giving the test in the same way to each child. A good deal of the training of graduate students, interns, and post-doctoral fellows involves learning and practicing these skills so that the test is given to every child in the same way, regardless of who gives it. At the same time, children are children, and sometimes they need something different. It is up to the evaluator to decide when to engage in “non-standardized administrative procedures.” One example of non-standard administration could be starting a child who has trouble catching on to novel tasks at a lower age starting point in order to help them master the task demands. Another example would be stopping a task before a ceiling of errors is reached because the child is very anxious and is having a hard time staying with the activity. It is important to make note of that break in protocol in the report; while it may somewhat reduce the validity of the scores, it also tells us something very valuable about the child’s learning style and tolerance.

Value of Having Previous Testing: Having the opportunity to review all previous testing is extremely valuable to neuropsychologists because it gives up some insight as to a child’s developmental trajectory. Scores that are higher than in previous testing may suggest improvement in a skill set. Scores that are consistent with previous testing indicate that a child is making age-expected progress along their unique learning curve. However, they may be falling farther and farther behind their same-age peers or progressing more quickly. Scores that are significantly weaker than in previous testing need to be closely examined. This could be a result of an imbalance between the environmental demands and the child’s internal resources. For instance, smart kids with executive function deficits are often not prepared for the organizational challenges of middle and high school. Significantly lower scores could also indicate stalled development due to ineffective educational interventions. It could also be a sign of emotional distress that is interfering with a child’s functioning. Rarely, it could be a sign of a medical or neurological problem. There are also some times when a change in average scores reflects a change in the exact tests or subtests used for the child. For example, when a teenager turns 16, it is common to begin administering adult intelligence scales and these tests may place higher value on slightly different skills (e.g., mental math). Without reviewing previous testing, a current evaluator may be able to provide a snapshot of a child’s current functioning, but might miss a critical developmental pattern important for understanding if/how the child is learning, what is needed to enhance their performance, and what can reasonably be expected over time for the child.

 

About the Author:

Formerly an adolescent and family therapist, Dr. Stephanie Monaghan-Blout is a senior clinician who joined NESCA at its inception in 2007. Dr. Monaghan-Blout specializes in the assessment of clients with complex learning and emotional issues. She is proficient in the administration of psychological (projective) tests, as well as in neuropsychological testing. Her responsibilities at NESCA also include acting as Clinical Coordinator, overseeing psycho-educational and therapeutic services. She has a particular interest in working with adopted children and their families, as well as those impacted by traumatic experiences. he is a member of the Trauma and Learning Policy Initiative (TLPI) associated with Massachusetts Advocates for Children and the Harvard Law Clinic, and is working with that group on an interdisciplinary guide to trauma sensitive evaluations.

 

 

To book an evaluation with Dr. Monaghan-Blout or one of our many other expert neuropsychologists and transition specialists, complete NESCA’s online intake form.

 

 

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

More Than An Inkblot: Measuring Problem-Solving and Critical Thinking Skills with Projective Tests

By | NESCA Notes 2019

Image Cred: SlidePlayer.com 2019

By Renée Marchant, Psy.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist

What might this be? A saxophone player? A woman’s face? A bunch of black and white paint? Or is it something else entirely? This classic optical illusion engages the parts of the brain responsible for perception, critical thinking, and problem-solving so that humans can “make sense” of a somewhat ambiguous picture. We know that everyone perceives and experiences the world differently. In order to best support a child’s growth and development, parents, educators, and professionals need to understand a child’s “lens” or “brain habits” that guide how they think, how they feel and how they behave. Projective testing assesses these “brain habits” and sheds light on a child’s problem-solving style.

If you google or look up “projective test” in the dictionary, an array of definitions pop up. The general theme is: a projective test is a test designed with ambiguous stimuli upon which a person presumably “projects” hidden, unconscious emotions and conflicts. Yes, a person’s internal thoughts, feelings, and assumptions sometimes outside of conscious awareness do influence your response to projective tests and your behavior in everyday life. However, projection is only one piece of the puzzle. A broader, more accurate definition is:

A projective test is a “performance-based” test that requires the respondent to perform a task that has little structure, direction or guidanceThese tasks might, for example, involve completing a sentence, telling a story, or describing inkblots (i.e. the famous Rorschach Inkblot Test).

So why do we care about assessing a child or teen’s ability to make sense of an unstructured, ambiguous task? In addition to measuring a child’s concrete knowledge and skills (e.g. academics, intellectual functions, memory capacity etc.), it is oftentimes crucial to understand how a child problem-solves a situation “in action” – when they must rely on themselves to formulate a solution. This is particularly true for children who have difficulties managing their emotions, children who have trouble making reasonable decisions, and children who can’t seem to make or keep friends. For youth with these challenges, understanding how “in the moment” problem-solving and critical thinking skills work or don’t work gives parents, educators, and professionals insight into learning style, challenges and strengths, and most importantly, guides individualized therapeutic interventions.

A growing number of business and education leaders have begun to recognize the importance of performance-based assessments to evaluate student learning in the classroom and the workplace. Creativity, ingenuity, “thinking on your feet” and the capacity for critical thinking and analysis are clearly key skills in today’s innovative world. Therefore, to set kids up for success, it is understandably helpful to evaluate a child’s thinking and feeling “brain habits” that affect their choices, behaviors, and aspirations. As assessors, teachers, professionals, and parents, we want to better understand how each child applies knowledge to solve problems they face now and in the future – social problems, work problems, emotional problems and beyond. Projective testing provides not only a current evaluation of a child’s capacity to problem solve “on their feet” but provides a direction for how those “brain habits” might pose a strength or a challenge for that child as they grow.

Are you thinking about referring a child, teen, or young adult for projective testing? Here are 5 “fast facts” to guide you:

  1. Projective (also known as performance-based) tests are powerful diagnostic tools when administered and interpreted in conjunction with observation and other standardized test results by a skilled, experienced practitioner. It is important to ask a potential evaluator about their training in projective testing and how they utilize the results.
  2. Projective testing is helpful for children and teens with various complex, social and emotional challenges. Common referrals include questions related to: thinking problems/emerging psychosis, trauma, attachment-related concerns, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, developing personality traits and disorders, high-risk behaviors such as suicidal or homicidal thoughts and actions, substance abuse, poor emotion regulation, and self-injury.
  3. Projective testing provides information about a child’s thinking patterns, how they experience emotions, self-esteem, and their habits of interacting with others. For example, is a child more likely to “keep everything inside” and avoid or do they dysregulate and “explode” when they experience anxiety? Are a child’s difficulties making and keeping friends because they get “stuck” on the details of a situation, is it because they “miss the big picture”, or are they in a constant state of worrying that others will let them down? Answering these questions results in a more individualized intervention plan for therapy, at home and at school.
  4. Projective testing is not for everyone. There is little research on the use of projective testing with children and adolescents with low visual acuity, below average verbal and/or non-verbal IQs, impairments in visual-spatial processing, social-communication challenges, or language disorders. Be cautious of practitioners who do not inquire and evaluate these important aspects of a child’s functioning, as they are crucial components to determine the appropriateness of a projective evaluation.
  5. Projective testing sheds light on not only a child’s areas of difficulty, but can also provide an individualized analysis of a child’s strengths. For example, projective testing can identify capacity for insight into choices and behaviors, ability to engage effectively in a therapeutic relationship, capacity for empathy and perspective-taking, as well as a child’s inclination towards imagination, creativity, and ingenuity.

About the Author:

Dr. Renée Marchant provides neuropsychological and psychological (projective) assessments for youth who present with a variety of complex, inter-related needs, with a particular emphasis on identifying co-occurring neurodevelopmental and psychiatric challenges. She specializes in the evaluation of developmental disabilities including autism spectrum disorder and social-emotional difficulties stemming from mood, anxiety, attachment, and trauma-related diagnoses. She often assesses children who have “unique learning styles” that can underlie deficits in problem-solving, emotion regulation, social skills, and self-esteem.

Dr. Marchant’s assessments prioritize the “whole picture,” particularly how systemic factors, such as culture, family life, school climate, and broader systems impact diagnoses and treatment needs. She frequently observes children at school and participates in IEP meetings.

Dr. Marchant brings a wealth of clinical experience to her evaluations. In addition to her expertise in assessment, she has extensive experience providing evidence-based therapy to children in individual (TF-CBT, insight-oriented), group (DBT), and family (solution-focused, structural) modalities. Her school, home, and treatment recommendations integrate practice-informed interventions that are tailored to the child’s unique needs.

Dr. Marchant received her B.A. from Boston College with a major in Clinical Psychology and her Psy.D. from William James College in Massachusetts. She completed her internship at the University of Utah’s Neuropsychiatric Institute and her postdoctoral fellowship at Cambridge Health Alliance, a Harvard Medical School teaching hospital, where she deepened her expertise in providing therapy and conducting assessments for children with neurodevelopmental disorders as well as youth who present with high-risk behaviors (e.g. psychosis, self-injury, aggression, suicidal ideation).

Dr. Marchant provides workshops and consultations to parents, school personnel, and treatment professionals on ways to cultivate resilience and self-efficacy in the face of adversity, trauma, interpersonal violence, and bullying. She is an expert on the interpretation of the Rorschach Inkblot Test and provides teaching and supervision on the usefulness of projective/performance-based measures in assessment. Dr. Marchant is also a member of the American Family Therapy Academy (AFTA) and continues to conduct research on the effectiveness of family therapy for high-risk, hospitalized patients.

To book an evaluation with Dr. Marchant or one of our many other expert neuropsychologists, complete NESCA’s online intake form.

 

 

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, MA, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.