Handwriting vs. Typing: Where do we draw the line?

By | NESCA Notes 2021

By: Sophie Bellenis, OTD, OTR/L
Occupational Therapist; Real-life Skills Program Manager and Coach, NESCA

For many of our students with dysgraphia, or those who struggle with the fine motor precision and the skills necessary for written output, digital tools and accommodations that promote the use of tech and keyboarding in the academic setting are immensely helpful. These tools allow our students to show their knowledge, demonstrate their written abilities, and fully access their curriculum.  When implemented correctly, these accommodations can have a huge impact on a student’s academic career. While all of this is true, it is worth discussing whether fully taking away the need to produce and practice handwritten work is leaving some of our students at a disadvantage.

When working with adolescents and young adults to help figure out future career or education plans, I am consistently reminded of the fact that despite our continuing transition toward a more and more digitally-based world, the need for handwriting has not disappeared. While we absolutely do not need to be handwriting essays, papers, or long letters sent via snail mail, there are aspects of almost every profession and daily life that require the skill. Here are a few common issues that I am seeing pop up that speak to the need for some continued practice –

  1. Job or rental applications. While some of this has moved over to an online format, many of these still need to be filled out appropriately and legibly by an applicant.
  2. Jotting down notes. The importance of this skill should not be diminished. Whether taking a phone message, making a grocery list, or writing down a phone number, most young adults are expected to be able to read their own handwriting at a later date, or leave a message for someone else who will need to be able to read it.
  3. Vocational responsibilities. Many of our students with disabilities choose to forgo the traditional college path and find a more suitable career field to pursue. Many of my clients have become successful carpenters, mechanics, or other tradespeople. These fields all require vast skill and talent, and often require employees to mark down measurements or make quick notations.
  4. Signing documents. Many banks, institutions, and legal documents require a handwritten signature and initials on any paperwork.

While I am not advocating that we take away accommodations from our students who do not have the foundational skills to write long paragraphs or essays, I am advocating that we stop fully eliminating the demand. By expecting some quick, consistent practice of handwriting, we are building a skill that will be needed multiple times throughout life. I would suggest that students who are being given a keyboarding fine motor/visual motor accommodation, also continue to receive instruction or opportunities to practice writing activities that are less fatiguing in order to continue to build the motor planning and skill necessary. It is unfair to equate the inability to use handwriting as a tool for academic output, with an inability to learn handwriting as a useful functional tool for life.


About the Author
Sophie Bellenis is a Licensed Occupational Therapist in Massachusetts, specializing in educational OT and functional life skills development. Bellenis joined NESCA in the fall of 2017 to offer community-based skills coaching services as a part of the Real-life Skills Program within NESCA’s Transition Services team. Bellenis graduated from the MGH Institute of Health Professions with a Doctorate in Occupational Therapy, with a focus on pediatrics and international program evaluation. She is a member of the American Occupational Therapy Association, as well as the World Federation of Occupational Therapists. Having spent years delivering direct services at the elementary, middle school and high school levels, Bellenis has extensive background with school-based occupational therapy services.  She believes that individual sensory needs and visual skills must be taken into account to create comprehensive educational programming.


To book an appointment or to learn more about NESCA’s Occupational Therapy Services, please fill out our online Intake Form, email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.


Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.


Does Scatter Matter? How to Understand Your Child Better

By | NESCA Notes 2021

By: Moira Creedon, Ph.D. 
Pediatric Neuropsychologist, NESCA

Families often come to testing with questions like these: My child is so smart, why is reading so hard for them? If she can remember the smallest conversation from three years ago, why can’t she remember the two things I sent her upstairs to get? If he can do all of the calculations, why can’t my son solve a word problem? The answer can show itself in the scatter.

Assessment measures are based on statistical conversions, where the number of points a child or teen earns is “translated” into a scaled or standard score. This helps us to understand how your child performs compared to other children their same age. Tests are largely based on the idea that scores should “hang together” – meaning that if your child is average for his or her age on one task (e.g., visual-spatial skills) then they should be average on another (e.g., verbal knowledge). And while this may be true for many people, it certainly it not true for all people. Many people have “scatter,” meaning that there is a statistical difference between their scores.

I will spare you the controversy about scatter in our field, about whether a certain degree of scatter or difference between scores means that you cannot calculate certain other scores. There is also specific knowledge of scatter needed to diagnose specific learning disabilities (e.g., if your child has high average verbal skills, how far apart do their reading scores need to be in order to fit the diagnostic criteria). While those topics are incredibly important to the field, my focus today is to build a little empathy for how scatter can matter.

There are times when this scatter can lead us to a diagnostic decision. For example, a relatively common pattern that I see is that of a very bright teenager whose cognitive and problem-solving are at least above average, while their basic focus and attention is below average. With other evidence that corroborates it, this can mean ADHD. A big difference between a child’s verbal knowledge/language skills and their ability to use their language for social purposes can suggest an Autism Spectrum Disorder. In these instances, the scatter absolutely matters. But, scatter can be meaningful to a child’s daily experience even if it’s not statistically “big enough” to warrant diagnosis.

Imagine being your child for a moment. Perhaps your child has a knack for building complex Lego sets and can spend hours assembling structures that are intricate, detailed, and involve more small pieces that my adult fingers could tolerate (let alone our feet as we step on them!). Perhaps your child’s visual-spatial skills are incredible, scoring in the high average range compared to their friends. Then you place a book in their hands and ask them to read a page aloud, where they struggle to sound out words, track their eyes smoothly across the page, or understand the meaning of anything they are saying. While you are left scratching your head as a parent, imagine the frustration and disappointment your child must feel wondering: why can I work with Legos better than anyone I know, but decoding words is torture?

In my mind, scatter can mean frustration. To feel exceptionally strong and confident in one skill domain and then barely hang on in another can leave your child disappointed, angry, and self-critical. Imagine having a vocabulary and encyclopedia of facts in your mind and your hand simply cannot keep up with your thoughts as you try to take notes or write down ideas for an essay. For an adult, it can be a bit like sitting in front of your computer with too many browser windows open and programs running at once, slowing down the entire operating system to the point that you growl in frustration (anyone else?).

While it can be easy to get lost in the controversy over the technical and statistical nature of scatter, it is important that we all have some empathy for what this must feel like for your child or teen. Empathy for this experience is a critical part of building the roadmap forward: where we can use those strong skills to build up the weaker ones, to grow new and stronger neural connections, and to give ourselves a little grace and patience when those weaker muscles get challenged.


About the Author

Dr. Creedon has expertise in evaluating children and teens with a variety of presenting issues. She is interested in uncovering an individual’s unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses to best formulate a plan for intervention and success. With experiences providing therapy and assessments, Dr. Creedon bridges the gap between testing data and therapeutic services to develop a clear roadmap for change and deeper of understanding of individual needs.


If you are interested in booking an evaluation with Dr. Creedon or another NESCA neuropsychologist, please fill out and submit our online intake form


Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton and Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

Career Counseling at NESCA

By | NESCA Notes 2021

By: Tabitha Monahan, M.A., CRC
NESCA Transition Specialist/Counselor

Career Counseling is a fluid process that typically occurs throughout a person’s lifetime. It begins when children are young and learning about different jobs that their family members have and what they see on television. As children get older, more pieces get added to that initial exploration.

What does Career Counseling through NESCA look like? It can be broken down into three distinct categories. Still, students and young adults frequently jump back and forth between the categories several times throughout the process. Today’s blog focuses on discussing these categories in a little more detail.

Who am I?

Each case begins with an initial interview with the client to learn more about them, their interests, goals for the future, and goals they wish to achieve in counseling. Often formal assessment measures are given to discover the client’s areas of interest and aptitude. We will then explore those results and connect them to their stated goal. Sometimes the results align well with the person’s initially stated goal; frequently, this is an eye-opening experience. Depending on the client’s needs and goals, additional formal and informal exploration activities will be completed to allow the client to build further understanding about who they are as a learner, worker, and what motivates them.


Career Counseling at NESCA is a data-driven process. Whether the data is from formal or informal measures, the client is guided through and assisted in understanding who they are and how that can connect to a happy and successful career. At this stage, clients will be assisted in exploring careers of interest that they have identified and learn about the careers in more detail, such as learning education requirements, typical job tasks, and how their strengths and areas of challenge will affect their potential success in the identified jobs. Additional skills worked on will include writing resumes and cover letters, interview preparation, and identifying possible reasonable accommodations and disclosure. If appropriate, informational interviews and job shadowing opportunities will be explored.

Moving forward

Once a client has learned the type of work they would like and understands foundational work skills, the next step they will take with the career counselor is to start the job search. In a systematic fashion, clients will be supported in finding available openings, applying for specific jobs, customizing cover letters and resumes for individual jobs, and pre-interview preparation. Additionally, goal setting, time and task management, and other employment success skills are explored during this process.

Continued success

Once a client has successfully been hired for a position, many continue their work with a career counselor. Typically, sessions decrease after a person becomes employed, but it is recommended that follow-up meetings occur at 1-week, 1-month, and 3-months post-employment to check in and problem solve any areas of concern that arise. Clients are encouraged to reach out before these times if an issue occurs to assist in finding a solution before the problem affects their employment.

Who is a good fit for Career Counseling at NESCA?

  • High school students who are not sure of what they want to do after high school and have a hard time developing their vision for their future (whether in creating their IEP vision or in general).
  • High school or college students who do not know what major to pick as they do not know the type of work they want to do after college.
  • Recent college graduates who need support in their job search and interview preparation.
  • Young adults who are looking to figure out their next employment steps or have had difficulty remaining employed once hired.

While the above is a general idea of what a Career Counseling client can expect, each person’s journey through the process is unique. For an in-depth conversation on how Career Counseling at NESCA may support you or your child in meeting their career goals, please fill out our intake form or call our main office at 617.658.9800. Services are currently being offered remotely, with limited in-person services starting this fall.


About the Author

Tabitha Monahan, M.A., CRC, is an experienced transition evaluator and vocational counselor. While she is well-versed in supporting a wide range of transition-aged youth, she is especially passionate and knowledgeable in helping clients and their families navigate the complex systems of adult services and benefits as well as medical and mental health systems. She is further adept in working individually with students of all abilities to empower self-advocacy and goal achievement.


To schedule an appointment with one of NESCA’s expert transition specialists or neuropsychologists, please complete our online intake form


Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton and Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.


Student Involvement in IEPs: Ten Tips to Help Middle School Students Get Started – Part 1

By | NESCA Notes 2021

By: Kelley Challen, Ed.M., CAS
Director of Transition Services; Transition Specialist, NESCA

Federal law requires that students with Individual Education Programs (IEPs) be invited to attend their transition IEP meetings. In Massachusetts, this means that students approaching the age of 14, often 8th graders, should be invited to attend their IEP meetings to start the process of transition planning if this has not already begun. For many, the idea of a middle school student attending an IEP meeting, an activity that can often be intimidating and upsetting for parents, can initially be overwhelming. And historically research has indicated that when students do attend team meetings, they have the lowest level of satisfaction about their IEP meeting of any team member and they feel the least comfortable sharing their thoughts and suggestions in the meeting.[i] However, research across the country has also shown that students can learn skills to actively participate in their IEP meetings, especially when they are directly taught terminology, roles, and how to participate, and when team members expect student participation.[ii] Student participation in IEPs is not only important because it is federally mandated, it is also essential because the IEP is supposed to be based on the student’s strengths, interests, preferences, and needs as well as the student’s post-high school goals—and because it’s the student’s life! For those reasons, I am choosing to focus this blog (and some future blogs) on tips for helping middle school students to become involved in their IEP processes.

  1. Explicitly learn about the IEP document and process—There are clear rules and vocabulary used to govern the IEP process. However, these are wholly unfamiliar and strange to anyone who has not participated in the process before (and even perplexing for those of us who have a lot of experience at team meetings). Therefore, one of the most critical ways to prepare a student to attend transition IEP meetings and to be a self-directed member of their IEP team is to equip them with knowledge of the vocabulary and rules that govern the process. One organization that has created useful materials for helping to teach students about the IEP process is imdetermined.org which has documents designed to assist students in understanding the IEP (https://imdetermined.org/resource/understanding-my-iep-differentiated/) and preparing for the IEP (https://imdetermined.org/resource/understanding-my-iep-differentiated/), but it may also be important to reference and simplify certain sections of the IEP Process Guide (https://www.doe.mass.edu/sped/iep/proguide.pdf). If students are not ready to review their entire IEP (which many students are not), it may be helpful just to think about the present levels of performance, strengths, or accommodations.
  2. Talk about strengths—While it’s critical that students be able to talk about their strengths and challenges, sometimes it’s easiest to start with strengths. People can have all kinds of strengths, such as character strengths, social strengths, language strengths, academic strengths, technical strengths, extracurricular strengths, and more. For kids who have a hard time with open-ended questions, there are checklists that can be found or completed online, such as character strengths inventories, transferable skills checklists, and strengths worksheets. There are also activities that can be useful for documenting strengths over time, such as this Strengths Chain activity (https://www.understood.org/articles/en/strengths-chain-for-kids), keeping a running list or journal of strengths and accomplishments, or building a deck of strength cards. All students need help learning to describe their strengths, especially the first time. Some students may have a hard time identifying the strengths they see in themselves, but may have an easy time sharing what other people say about them or compliment them on. Talking about strengths is not a one-time activity. Make sure that you are talking about and referring to the student’s strengths often while also highlighting how various members of the household or students in the class have different strengths and skills.
  3. Talk about challenges!—While transition planning is a strengths-based process, an IEP is based on a student needing specialized instruction and related services because the student has a disability and would struggle to make effective progress in school or the general education curriculum without special education. If we are going to ask students to be actively involved in a process of goal-setting based principally on their having a disability and related challenges, it is critical that the student has the opportunity to talk about what is hard for them and what they want to get better at… in their own words. At the same time, it is important to normalize the fact that all people have challenges, learn different information at different rates, and need help (and tools) to function successfully. Ultimately, being able to use a diagnostic label and understand the impact of a diagnosis on functioning is important, but what is more important is being able to describe what is hard on a daily basis and what makes those difficult activities easier. For some students, it is helpful to read a book or watch a television show or movie with characters who face similar struggles and to label similarities between the youth and the character. Some of the same checklists mentioned for documenting strengths can be helpful for identifying areas of challenge or undeveloped skills. It may also be helpful to start filling in a worksheet similar to this one-pager (https://imdetermined.org/resource/one-pager/) or this self-awareness worksheet (https://www.understood.org/articles/en/download-self-awareness-worksheet-for-kids). Just as with strengths, it is important to talk about and refer to specific challenges that each person in the household or class faces.
  4.  Complete interest and preference inventories—Learning to engage in self-assessments and talk about those self-assessments is an important part of transition planning and IEP participation. There are so many fun interest and personality quizzes online that can be taken in minutes. Some examples include these personality tests from National Geographic Kids (https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/games/personality-quizzes), this free personality type explorer (https://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test), or even the O*Net Career Interest Profiler (https://www.mynextmove.org/explore/ip). Have the student take the test—and take these tests yourself—and talk about how your results are similar or different and how well the student thinks the results of the assessment capture them. Think about whether there are strengths or challenges to add to their running lists or worksheets based on their experience taking these inventories.
  5. Talk about the student’s goals for after high school—Students have the right to input as much as possible into their postsecondary vision statement, no matter how realistic or unrealistic their input is. The only way that they can be prepared to provide input at a team meeting is if they have spent some time thinking and talking about their post-high school goals and learning about their choices and options. Just recently, my colleague Becki Lauzon wrote a blog with important discussion points for talking about post-high school goals with students, which can be found here. A robust transition planning process should include helping a student to have detailed goals for their future education or training, employment, independent living, and community engagement; however, initial discussions might just include ruling in or out things like obtaining a high school diploma, continuing learning after high school, having a paid job, driving a car, and living with other people. In middle school, the goal of talking with a student about their postsecondary vision is just to help the student learn to comfortably engage in those discussions and to find out where future work needs to be done in order to help the student build a more complete picture of their adult postsecondary life.

Every student is different and is able to engage in the process in different ways and at different times, but I hope that there is at least one tip in these blogs that is useful for you. Next month, I will be writing a second blog with more tips for engaging middle school students in the IEP process.

If you are interested in having your child work with Kelley Challen or another NESCA transition specialist to plan and prepare to be part of their IEP meeting, please fill out an intake for our transition consultation and planning services or our student coaching services today!

[i] http://www2.ku.edu/~tccop/files/Martins_Perspective.pdf

[ii] http://www2.ku.edu/~tccop/files/Martins_Perspective.pdf


About the Author
Kelley Challen, Ed.M., CAS, is NESCA’s Director of Transition Services, overseeing planning, consultation, evaluation, coaching, case management, training and program development services. Ms. Challen also provides expert witness testimony in legal proceedings related to special education. She is also the Assistant Director of NESCA, working under Dr. Ann Helmus to support day-to-day operations of the practice. Ms. Challen began facilitating programs for children and adolescents with special needs in 2004. After receiving her Master’s Degree and Certificate of Advanced Study in Risk and Prevention Counseling from Harvard Graduate School of Education, Ms. Challen spent several years at the MGH Aspire Program where she founded an array of social, life and career skill development programs for teens and young adults with Asperger’s Syndrome and related profiles. She additionally worked at the Northeast Arc as Program Director for the Spotlight Program, a drama-based social pragmatics program, serving youth with a wide range of diagnoses and collaborating with several school districts to design in-house social skills and transition programs. Ms. Challen is co-author of the chapter “Technologies to Support Interventions for Social- Emotional Intelligence, Self-Awareness, Personality Style, and Self-Regulation” for the book Technology Tools for Students with Autism. She is also a proud mother of two energetic boys, ages six and three. While Ms. Challen has special expertise in supporting students with Autism Spectrum Disorders, she provides support to individuals with a wide range of developmental and learning abilities, including students with complex medical needs.


Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com, call 617-658-9800 or complete our online Intake Form.

Is It Sensory? Or Is It Behavior?

By | NESCA Notes 2021

By: Julie Robinson, OT
Director of Clinical Services; Occupational Therapist, NESCA

As parents or other caregivers of children with special needs, we can often find ourselves confused between what is a sensory response and what is behavior. Although this is often a complex question, and one without a straightforward answer, there are some tools of the trade that OTs use to help us determine just what is going on with these children. What makes this so complex is that each child is an individual, with their own unique ways of responding to sensory stimuli, to social interactions, and when out in varied settings in their community or with family. Children may also present differently from minute to minute or day to day, depending on sleep, hunger, and fluctuations in mood. But we can often look closely for patterns that may help to guide us in finding the answers.

When working with a child who seems to be in a meltdown, one of the best things you can do is take a quick scan of the environment. Is there a loud or distracting sound in the background? Did someone touch the child unexpectedly? Is the overall environment too busy and overstimulating, such as at party or a restaurant? Sometimes just naming or removing the stimuli, if possible, is enough to help get things back under control. If you know a triggering situation might arise that provokes a meltdown, see if you can give the child a warning and a plan of where to go for comfort. “We will be having a fire drill in 10 minutes, so when it happens you can hold _____’s hand, or we can get you some headphones to cover your ears to make you more comfortable” is one example. Find something soothing from a sensory perspective to help the child settle: a quiet corner with books, some tactile play or fidgets, calming music, a tight squeeze ( but only if tolerated and given permission to do so ). If you know you are entering a highly stimulating environment, it may be best to go in for short periods, with frequent breaks built in for your child every 10 minutes or so to take a walk, use the bathroom, or get a drink.

If you do not see something sensory in your environment creating the discomfort or the meltdown, then behavior and emotions are more likely at play. You child may feel confused about a social interaction, about expectations, or what may be coming next in a transition. Your child may feel a lack of confidence or anxiety in a situation, that although may be seemingly simple and straight forward to you, may not to him or to her. An academic task may feel misunderstood, and not knowing how to start can result in a meltdown for many of our children.

When you see that the child you are caring for is beginning to ramp up, that is the best time to intervene. Once a meltdown has begun, language processing will be limited, and the child may not be reachable for a period of time in order to settle down. The best thing you can do in those moments, is to help the child to stop. I often use a stop sign to hold up in my therapy sessions, that cues the child to take a quick break from interacting with me when I see things starting to spin out of control. I limit my language, provide a calming sensory activity, then we can talk about the upset once I have the child back in my court.

Here are some things to think about and questions you might ask yourself to help guide your interactions and expectations when you, as the adult, are confused about whether this is sensory or behavior:

  1. What are the undesirable behaviors that my child observes when he or she is upset or uncomfortable? Are they different when there is sensory discomfort, in comparison to when he or she is upset with a person or a demand? Notice quality of voice, bodily tension, inability to stay still or focused, aggression, flight or an attempt to get away, shutdown or inability to interact. You may start to see patterns in behavior when you look at them in relation to a sensory event or something that is more emotionally-laden.
  2. What occurred just before this behavior appeared? Was there a sensory distraction or discomfort or was he or she upset with a person or a demand?
  3. How did the child behave during this episode?
  4. How did adults or peers interact with my child during the episode? Did it calm the child, or make him or her more agitated?
  5. List sensations that may have triggered a meltdown: tactile, auditory, visual, smell, taste, movement. Were they loud, distracting, uncomfortable? Was the child in a space that may have been too small or too large? Was the child able to get away from the uncomfortable stimuli, or did he or she feel stuck in the moment?

It will be beneficial for team members to share information and write these things down, perhaps in a format of a journal, so that the team can work together to uncover the patterns, find strategies that are successful, and provide consistency across the board. We all know consistency for these children is one of the most effective tools for learning, and although it may take some extra work up front for caregivers, the pay off on the other side is often so rewarding that it is worth the effort.

If you would like to explore this topic further with NESCA OT Julie Robinson, join us for a free webinar on this topic on September 13, 2021 at 10:30 am ET. Register in advance for this webinar at:



About the Author

Julie Robinson is an occupational therapist with over 25 years of experience as a clinician. The work Julie does is integral to human development, wellness and a solid family unit. She particularly enjoys supporting families through the process of adoption and in working with children who are victims of trauma. Julie has extensive experience working with children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), or who have learning or emotional disabilities. She provides services that address Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) and self-regulation challenges, as well as development of motor and executive functioning skills.

To book an appointment or to learn more about NESCA’s Occupational Therapy Services or other clinical therapies, please fill out our online Intake Form, email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.


Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.


Summer Learning

By | NESCA Notes 2018

By: Amity Kulis, Psy.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist, NESCA

As the warm days are here and summer vacation is either upon us or close by, our minds are shifting away from education: homework, studying for tests, and general stress. However, it is important to keep in mind that while summer vacation should be fun, it also provides an opportunity to build on learning.

Summer learning loss or summer slide is a real phenomenon for most children, even those without learning disabilities. Now, I am not advocating that every child needs to be in summer school to prevent this loss, but I am suggesting that we should be mindful and think about ways to promote learning over the summer. The areas of most concern include regression in reading and math skills, physical fitness, and social skills. These challenges are easy to overcome with some thoughtful planning of activities.

Reading: Studies suggest that just four to five books over the summer help to prevent summer learning loss in reading. Now not every child is going to be excited to read, even if they get to pick out their own books over the summer. However, we can find ways to make it more interesting.

  • Perhaps everyone in the family reads the same book and there are opportunities to read together or talk about the book at night. By reading out loud this would allow for even the youngest family member to be included.
  • Maybe a child is encouraged to pick a book about an upcoming family vacation. For example, a tour guide or the history of the area and they can relate that information when they are actually on vacation.
  • Graphic novels and other books that integrate words and pictures can be more exciting for some children.
  • Visit local museums. Without your children even realizing it they will be reading as they explore the exhibits at the Science Museum or the Aquarium. Boston and New England have many wonderful museums and summer is a great time to explore them with the added benefit of your children being exposed to printed text at each exhibit. It can be expensive to visit all the museums but most public libraries offer free or discounted prices to many museums.

Math: Many studies point to the most concern for regression in math skills. It seems easier to find ways to address reading skills over the summer and more difficult to find fun ways to continue to support math development. The good news is there are fun ways to incorporate math into everyday life.

  • While most of us are trying to limit technology and screen time in our children’s lives, the reality is that most children want it. Make screen time more educational by downloading games that involve math activities that are appropriate for your child’s educational skills.
  • Get cooking! Over the summer have your child help you in preparing a meal or a favorite treat. There is so much math involved in cooking. For young children it can simply be counting out the number of carrots needed for the soup and for older children you can learn about fractions or doubling or even tripling the recipe. You’ll be helping to make math more functional and applicable to real life, plus you’ll have fun and a tasty treat afterwards.
  • Another great way to involve numbers in everyday activities is including your child in planning the schedule for the day. Planning for the amount of travel time, whether it be by car or public transportation, accounting for the amount of time at the various activities and planning in meals can be a great exercise in time management and using numbers.

Physical activity and Social Skills: In addition to the academic aspects of summer slide it is also important to consider the physical and social aspects of an unstructured summer vacation. During the school year children have daily recess and regular gym class where they are presented with opportunities to interact with peers and get their bodies moving. During the summer there are endless opportunities to continue to promote these skills:

  • Sign your child up for a camp. Almost all summer camps have a social component and many also involve regular physical activity.
  • If your child is not doing summer camp there are also plenty of activities happening on a weekly basis throughout the summer. Check out your local recreation department/community center for free or discounted activities.
  • Walk or ride instead of driving the car. In the warm weather over the summer there are so many opportunities to get outside. Ride your bike or walk to the local ice cream parlor or even just around the block.
  • It can also be a great opportunity to learn a new sport like swimming or tennis.
  • Playgrounds, the beach, water parks, among others, are excellent places to meet up with old friends or meet new friends.

The important thing for the summer is to have fun and to never stop learning!

About the Author:

Dr. Amity Kulis joined NESCA in 2012 after earning her doctoral degree in clinical psychology from the Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology, with a concentration in Children, Adolescents and Families (CAF). She completed post-doctoral training in pediatric neuropsychology with an emphasis on treating children with developmental, intellectual, learning and executive functioning challenges. She also has extensive training psychological (projective) testing and has conducted individual and group therapies for children of all ages. Before joining NESCA, Dr. Kulis worked in private practices, clinics, and schools, conducting comprehensive assessments on children ranging from toddlers through young adults. In addition, Dr. Kulis has had the opportunity to consult with various school systems, conducting observations of programs, and providing in-service trainings for staff. Dr. Kulis currently conducts neuropsychological and psychological (projective) assessments for school aged children through young adulthood. She regularly participates in transition assessments (focusing on the needs of adolescents as they emerge into adulthood) and has a special interest in working with complex learners that may also struggle with emotional challenges and psychiatric conditions. In addition to administering comprehensive and data driven evaluations, Dr. Kulis regularly conducts school-based observations and participates in school meetings to help share her findings and consultation with a student’s TEAM.


Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton and Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.



Vision Statements

By | NESCA Notes 2021

By: Becki Lauzon, M.A., CRC
Transition Specialist and Consultant

Having been a transition specialist, evaluator and consultant, as well as having worked different roles within the special education system for many years, I have come to learn that the “Post-Secondary Vision Statement” for a student is one of the most overlooked pieces of the transition and IEP process. To me, this is one of the MOST important parts of the transition planning process for students, their families, and their Team members. The vision statement is a key part of a student’s IEP, as well as their Transition Planning Form (TPF), once a student turns 14. Prior to a student turning 14, the vision statement should be completed collaboratively by the Team. Once a student turns 14, I encourage the student to have as much input as possible, no matter how realistic or unrealistic the vision is. There have been times when I have seen two vision statements on an IEP, one for the student and one for the parents and/or Team, depending on the situation. Many times, parents or school staff will ask for guidance on what information should be gathered and how to get that information from a student.

Below are some of the tips that I have learned and shared along the way:

  • The vision will most likely change from year to year.
  • The vision is what should be driving the development of the IEP.
  • Starting at age 14, the vision statement that is in the IEP needs to correspond with the vision statement on the TPF.
  • From age 14 on, the vision statement (as well as the TPF) should be read at the beginning of the IEP meeting to make sure the Team is focusing on the areas needed to assist a student in reaching their vision.
  • If a student is unable to write their own vision, it is important that the Team incorporates what they know about the students’ strengths, interests, etc.

A vision statement can be long or short. It is not the length of it that matters, but the content. With the summer now starting, it is a good time to sit down with your student and start to discuss some of the below areas to be prepared for the upcoming school year.

  • Education
    • Do you want to pass MCAS?
    • Do you want to earn a high school diploma?
    • Do you want to stay in school until the age of 22?
    • Do you want to go to a 2- or 4-year college?
    • Do you want to take classes towards a certificate program/trade?
    • Do you want to attend a community-based day program?
  • Employment
    • Do you want to have a part-time job while you are still in school?
    • What do you want to be when you are older (even if it is unrealistic)?
    • Do you want to participate in volunteer work?
    • Do you want to work part-time or full-time?
    • If you are unsure about what job you might like, what tasks/activities do you enjoy doing?
  • Independent Living
    • Do you want to live on your own, in a shared living setting or stay living with family?
    • Would you like to live alone or with a roommate?
    • Do you want to live in the same area?
    • How will you access the community (i.e., public transportation, driver’s license, family, etc.)?
    • Do you want to work on developing your independent living skills, such as money management/budgeting, domestic skills, cooking, shopping, first aid, etc.?
    • What do you want to do for fun (i.e., community events, sports, acting, working out, etc.)?

There are many resources available to families regarding what to do and not to do when it comes to writing a strong vision statement for a student of any age. Below are a few examples of resources that I have found helpful:





About the Author

Becki Lauzon, M.A., CRC, works with teens, young adults and their families out of the Newton, MA and Plainville, MA offices. Lauzon has unparalleled experience as a Transition Specialist, Transition Consultant and Vocational Program Coordinator. Lauzon will be providing transition assessment (including testing, functional evaluations and observations) consultation, case management, training and professional development for schools; and transition planning, consultation and coaching for transition-aged students and their parents.


To schedule an appointment with one of NESCA’s expert transition specialists or neuropsychologists, please complete our online intake form


Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton and Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.


Summer is Here, but There are Still Chores to Do – The Importance of Chores in a Child’s Development

By | NESCA Notes 2021

By Dot Lucci, M.Ed., CAGS
Director of Consultation and Psychoeducational Services, NESCA

What a year it’s been! Hopefully with the pandemic restrictions lifted and the start of summer, we are all breathing a sigh of relief. I’m certainly looking forward to traveling, seeing relatives and getting out without masks. The pandemic upturned our lives in so many ways, but now that there is a “sense of normalcy” returning, we may be tempted to kick back and really relax this summer. However, I would caution that in kicking back and relaxing, there are still chores that need to be done. So, why not include your children in taking ownership and helping out around the house? There is research that states that toddlers who are taught to “help out” around the house continue to help out as they age. Many children in indigenous communities grow up asking to help or just help out because it is needed. Wouldn’t it be nice if that were the case in the United States?

Jim Fay, co-founder of the Love and Logic parenting website, says that all of us need to feel needed and know we are making a contribution to those around us or to our world at large – even kids. In many families, chores are a tradition, but in others they have fallen by the wayside. Many upper and middle class families have hired household help, so the need to do chores isn’t as great, and fighting with children to do chores doesn’t seem worth it. Let’s face it, no one likes to do chores, but they have to get done. Psychologist Roger McIntire, author of Raising Good Kids in Tough Times, says, “A child has to have some responsibilities.” The family is a community, and everyone should chip in and help out. Helping out with family responsibilities and doing one’s own personal responsibilities are useful and necessary skills for a child’s development. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry states that, “there are benefits to including chores in a child’s routine as early as age 3. Children who do chores may exhibit higher self-esteem, be more responsible, and be better equipped to deal with frustration, adversity, and delayed gratification. These skills can lead to greater success in school, work, and relationships.” Research also shows that children who grow up contributing to the family responsibilities grow up to be adults who work well in collaborative groups and have a “can-do” attitude.

Helping kids learn that they have to do chores and that they are a part of life teaches them that it’s not just about me and what I need at this moment, but that I’m part of a system. I’m part of a family (I set the table). I’m part of my class at school (I clean up after an art project). I’m part of my sports team (I carry the bat/ball bag). I’m part of the workplace (I do my part). Humans crave a sense of belonging and connection, and helping others out and doing work for the good of the whole helps us understand why connection is important. The more we can do to foster this in our kids, the better off they will be as adults. Chores are a form of selflessness and help children develop a sense of responsibility and awareness of the needs of others. They begin to recognize that when they pick up, they can find their toys and they are grateful for the small things. Parents show gratitude when children do chores. Praise is good! Children feel appreciated and connected, and gratitude helps wire our brains to notice more things to feel thankful for, leading us to feel better overall.

Chores are powerful teachers. They help a child develop a greater sense of responsibility and awareness of the needs of others, and they also contribute to a child’s social and emotional well-being. Chores help children believe that they are competent and capable and help them develop greater self-esteem. Doing chores can also help children learn problem solving skills as well as the consequences of not doing their chores (i.e., not putting your baseball shirt in the laundry so it’s dirty for the next game). Chores are an excellent teacher of life skills. Knowing how to set the table, walk the dog, pick up toys, do laundry, prepare a meal, sweep/vacuum the floor, change a vacuum cleaner bag, etc., all help prepare a child for the responsibilities of adulthood. More involved tasks (i.e., cleaning out the garage) can be used in the development a child’s executive functioning skills, prompting them (perhaps with parent assistance) to figure out how to tackle the task in the most efficient, most systematic manner. And they learn about solutions that may be applied to a host of other life responsibilities.

Being a part of a family and taking responsibility for oneself and contributing to the family by doing chores is a powerful gift to give to children, even if they may not do the chores perfectly, may need to be reminded to do them, or grumble while they are doing them. It’s okay. Over time, these will lessen. Stay with it and help your child recognize and understand that life is work, and they have to be a part of the work of life.

If you aren’t having your child do chores now, consider it while the summer is here. It will help them out in many ways in the long run, helping them to be better functioning and more capable adults. If you need help figuring out which chores are age-appropriate, there are many lists online offering ideas and ways to assist in helping children do chores without too much complaining!






About the Author

NESCA’s Director of Consultation and Psychoeducational Services Dot Lucci has been active in the fields of education, psychology, research and academia for over 30 years. She is a national consultant and speaker on program design and the inclusion of children and adolescents with special needs, especially those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Prior to joining NESCA, Ms. Lucci was the Principal of the Partners Program/EDCO Collaborative and previously the Program Director and Director of Consultation at MGH/Aspire for 13 years, where she built child, teen and young adult programs and established the 3-Ss (self-awareness, social competency and stress management) as the programming backbone. She also served as director of the Autism Support Center. Ms. Lucci was previously an elementary classroom teacher, special educator, researcher, school psychologist, college professor and director of public schools, a private special education school and an education collaborative.

Ms. Lucci directs NESCA’s consultation services to public and private schools, colleges and universities, businesses and community agencies. She also provides psychoeducational counseling directly to students and parents. Ms. Lucci’s clinical interests include mind-body practices, positive psychology, and the use of technology and biofeedback devices in the instruction of social and emotional learning, especially as they apply to neurodiverse individuals.


To book a consultation with Ms. Lucci or one of our many expert neuropsychologists, complete NESCA’s online intake form. Indicate whether you are seeking an “evaluation” or “consultation” and your preferred clinician/consultant in the referral line.


Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.


The Joys of Career Counseling

By | NESCA Notes 2021

By: Tabitha Monahan, M.A., CRC
NESCA Transition Specialist/Counselor

One of my favorite parts of being a Certified Rehabilitation Counselor is career counseling. In an ideal world, work is not just a paycheck. It’s another way for people to find joy and connect to the world and their community in a way that makes sense for them. Whether it is being a young person creating a lemonade stand, going around town to shovel people’s driveways, or getting that first real feel of a work environment and learning the social dynamics of having coworkers and a boss, those early jobs can help a person figure out what they don’t want to do and bring them closer to finding that right job. There is nothing more rewarding than when I get that email from one of my career counseling clients that they rocked their interview and were offered the job.

I’m looking forward to spending the next few months talking about career counseling and the career search process for individuals with disabilities. Career counseling and exploration are a vital part of every teenager and young adult’s life. This is especially true for students with disabilities who are struggling to figure out their next steps. As NESCA’s Director of Transition Services Kelley Challen, Ed.M., CAS, wrote in her last blog, employment in the high school years is an evidence-based method of having better postsecondary outcomes in both college and the workforce.

Career exploration is nothing new. But exploration starts a lot earlier than we think. We have all seen pictures of the first and last day of school that include a board with the student’s favorite color and what they want to do when they grow up. The answers to those questions change over time. If I had the job that I wanted when I was in 5th grade, I would be a zoologist right now! My future dislike of biology notwithstanding, I love the career that I ended up choosing. Still, it is not a career I ever would have thought of when I went off to college.

As we go back to a different world than before the pandemic, we will have to relook at what career exploration means. By the nature of the pandemic, there were lost opportunities for students and young adults to have looked at and tried different careers. So, what can we do instead? One of the best silver linings to come out of the pandemic is the number of YouTube videos and free resources that became available. If a student has never heard of or seen a career, how can they know if they like it or not? So, whether your child is 10, 18, or 25, if they are looking for a new job or a new area to find joy, the first place to start is exploration.

Throughout my summer blog series, I look forward to sharing more about career exploration with the following topics:

  • Career Counseling Services at NESCA
  • Interest Inventories and the benefit of informal career assessments
  • The benefit of informational and practice interviews


About the Author

Tabitha Monahan, M.A., CRC, is an experienced transition evaluator and vocational counselor. While she is well-versed in supporting a wide range of transition-aged youth, she is especially passionate and knowledgeable in helping clients and their families navigate the complex systems of adult services and benefits as well as medical and mental health systems. She is further adept in working individually with students of all abilities to empower self-advocacy and goal achievement.


To schedule an appointment with one of NESCA’s expert transition specialists or neuropsychologists, please complete our online intake form


Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton and Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.