NESCA is currently booking for in-person Real-life Skills and Executive Function Coaching in the Newton, MA office! Our experienced occupational therapists work alongside individuals to achieve their personalized goals, which often address functional life skills that allow them to thrive in their homes, schools, and communities. For those not local to Newton, MA, remote services are also offered. Click here for more information. To inquire about our coaching services, complete our Intake Form.

Tag

processing speed

Paying Proper Attention to Inattention

By | NESCA Notes 2022

By: Maggie Rodriguez, Psy.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist, NESCA

One of the most common referral questions I see in my work as a neuropsychologist is, “Does my child have ADHD?” When a child has trouble focusing, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, is one of the first things that comes to mind, and for good reason. However, ADHD is only one potential underlying cause of inattention. In fact, there are many cases in which attentional difficulties are present as part of another underlying issue. Some of these include:

  1. Anxiety—On a physiological level, anxiety involves activation of the “fight or flight” response. This adaptive process is designed to alter attention in order to prioritize survival. When the brain senses a threat, it tunes out everything else so it can focus on dealing with the danger at hand. This is extremely useful when the threat is something like a wild animal chasing you. In that case, you need to momentarily shift all of your attention to survival. It’s the worst possible time to be distracted by anything that could divert your attention from escaping a dangerous situation. But when students are anxious, especially for extended periods of time, the same process can make it difficult to focus on day-to-day tasks, including learning.
  2. Learning Disorder—Students who lack the academic skills to engage with the curriculum can appear to be simply not paying attention. If a student’s reading skills, for instance, are several grade levels below expectations, they won’t be able to actively engage with written assignments or materials in class.
  3. Communication Disorder—Deficits in receptive and/or expressive language often manifest in ways that mimic inattention. If a child cannot grasp what is being communicated, they will have significant difficulty following verbal instructions, answering questions, and retaining important information. This can easily be misinterpreted as a sign of an attentional issue when, in reality, the underlying problem has to do with communication.
  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)—Many individuals on the Autism spectrum tend to be more attuned and focused on internal experiences (e.g., their own thoughts and specific interests) than to the external environment. As a result, they can miss important information, ranging from social cues to expectations communicated at home or within the classroom.
  5. Other neurocognitive disorders—Weaknesses in other cognitive functions, particularly those we refer to as “cognitive proficiency” skills (e.g., processing speed) and executive functions (e.g., working memory, organization) can also result in apparent inattention. Students who cannot process information quickly are sometimes unable to keep up with the pace of instruction, which causes a diminished ability to comprehend and retain information. Similarly, students who cannot hold information in working memory or organize ideas and concepts can demonstrate reduced comprehension.

There is a range of other issues that can contribute to children or adolescents appearing inattentive. Some of these include trauma, absence seizures, hearing impairments, thought disorders and/or hallucinations, and Tourette’s Syndrome. It is important to thoroughly evaluate the potential causes of inattention and to consider an individual’s full history and presentation.  Because different underlying issues will necessitate different treatment approaches, getting to the root of the issue can be tremendously important.

 

About the Author

Maggie Rodriguez, Psy.D., provides comprehensive evaluation services for children, adolescents, and young adults with often complex presentations. She particularly enjoys working with individuals who have concerns about attention and executive functioning, language-based learning disorders, and those with overlapping cognitive and social/emotional difficulties.

Prior to joining NESCA, Dr. Rodriguez worked in private practice, where she completed assessments with high-functioning students presenting with complex cognitive profiles whose areas of weakness may have gone previously undiagnosed. Dr. Rodriguez’s experience also includes pre- and post-doctoral training in the Learning Disability Clinic at Boston Children’s Hospital and the Neurodevelopmental Center at MassGeneral for Children/North Shore Medical Center. Dr. Rodriguez has spent significant time working with students in academic settings, including k-12 public and charter school systems and private academic programs, such as the Threshold Program at Lesley University.

Dr. Rodriguez earned her Psy.D. from William James College in 2012, where her coursework and practicum training focused on clinical work with children and adolescents and on assessment. Her doctoral thesis centered on cultural issues related to evaluation.

Dr. Rodriguez lives north of Boston with her husband and three young children.  She enjoys spending time outdoors hiking and bike riding with her family, practicing yoga, and reading.

 

To book a consultation with Dr. Rodriguez or one of our many other expert neuropsychologists, complete NESCA’s online intake form.

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

When “Attention Problems” Are Not ADHD

By | NESCA Notes 2019

By Jessica Geragosian, Psy.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurological disruption of the arousal system in the brain resulting in difficulties regulating attention and activity levels. ADHD can present with or without hyperactivity. Children with ADHD often have trouble engaging in expected tasks and maintaining appropriate behavioral control due to problems with inattention and lack of self-regulation. This can result in problems in the home, at school, and in peer relationships.

When concerns regarding attention or activity level are raised by parents or teachers, common practice is to consult with the child’s pediatrician. Parents and teachers might fill out rating scales asking questions like: Does your child have problems paying attention? Does your child have a hard time sitting still? Is your child having problems with learning? Is your child having difficulty following directions at home? When the answers to these questions are “yes,” a diagnosis of ADHD may seem appropriate.

However, there are many cases where inattention and/or impulsive behavior present as a symptom of another underlying problem and are not attributable to a primary attention disorder (ADHD).

The 5 most common misattributions I have seen in my clinical practice as a pediatric neuropsychologist in New Hampshire and Massachusetts are:

  1. Anxiety—When an individual is in a state of “fight or flight,” the brain lacks appreciation for information from the external environment that isn’t critical. When an individual is in a generalized state of anxiety, it is extremely difficult to remain focused and engaged in expected tasks.
  2. Learning disability—A student may have a disability in a core academic area. For example, a teacher may observe a child as being inattentive, when, in fact, they are several grade levels behind in reading. Thus, they cannot access the materials being distributed to the class.
  3. Communication disorder—If a child’s primary deficit is in the way they process language, you can be sure they look inattentive (e.g., not responding accurately to questions, inability to follow directions, etc.)
  4. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)—Some children on the autism spectrum appear quite inattentive. In my experience, many children with ASD are often more tuned in to their internal environment (i.e., their thoughts and interests) at the expense of the external/social environment (i.e., parent, classroom and social expectations). While this can look similar to ADHD, the treatment approach is quite different.
  5. Other neurocognitive disorder (e.g., Processing speed deficit)—Other cognitive deficits can also make a student appear inattentive. If a student has slow processing speed, for example, the individual may not be able to keep up with the pace of instruction, resulting in an inability to absorb all of the lesson.

Other less common issues can also present as inattention, including trauma, absence seizures, hearing impairment, hallucinations, Tourette’s syndrome, among others. Because the root cause of inattention can sometimes be something very specific and complex, it is important to get a thorough evaluation.

It is also not uncommon for ADHD to present alongside the challenges identified above. In this case, effective intervention requires a simultaneous treatment plan addressing all challenges concurrently.

It is important to get a big picture—and accurate—understanding of a child’s neuropsychological profile in planning effective interventions. Our brains are complex, and one symptom can be common to many different origins. Getting the correct diagnosis the first time helps to put the right treatments in place.

 

About the Author:

Dr. Jessica Geragosian is a Licensed Psychologist in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. She has a wide range of clinical experience – in hospital, school and clinic settings – working with children and adolescents presenting with a wide range of cognitive, learning, social and psychological challenges.

Dr. Geragosian operates under the primary belief that all children want to, and can be, successful. The primary goal of her work is to identify the child’s innate strengths and find any underlying vulnerabilities preventing a child from achieving success. Whether the primary problem is an inability to acquire academic skills, maintain friendships, control emotions, or regulate behavior to meet expectations; she takes a holistic approach to understand the complex interplay of developmental, neurological and psychological factors contributing to a child’s presenting challenges.

Dr. Geragosian earned her doctoral degree from William James University, before completing postgraduate training in pediatric neuropsychology at the Massachusetts General Hospital for Children at North Shore Medical Center, where a focus of her work was neuropsychological assessment of young children with developmental challenges.

 

To book an evaluation with Dr. Geragosian or one of our many other expert neuropsychologists, complete NESCA’s online intake form.

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton and Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

Smart and Slow: What is a processing speed deficit? How can evaluation help?

By | NESCA Notes 2019

By Jessica Geragosian, Psy.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist

Emilia is in the 7th grade. Teachers have always found her to be an intelligent and academically motivated child; however, she has historically been quite slow in completing classwork and tests. Homework, particularly now in middle school, has been a highly laborious process, taking her far longer than her peers. Emilia’s parents were also concerned when receiving her SSAT results, as the scores did not seem to reflect the capabilities of their smart kid. But what is most concerning to Emilia’s parents is that Emilia has recently been coming home saying she is “dumb” and hates school.

Processing speed is the rate at which an individual can process information and produce an output. Although it is measured as part of many standard intelligence tests, it has nothing to do with how “smart” an individual is. Processing speed challenges can be visual, oral, and graphomotor in nature. They do not have to be related to a learning disability or ADHD, though they can be. Also, processing speed can be easily impacted by many things. For example, while an individual may not have a primary processing speed deficit, depression and anxiety can temporarily cause deficits in processing speed.

It is not uncommon for children to have strengths and weaknesses in their cognitive profile. Weaknesses in processing speed, however, can be particularly frustrating, especially when children are very bright. This is because these children may have many ideas, but cannot produce them efficiently or effectively. Children with processing speed deficits tend to experience a high level of frustration, as they are not able to demonstrate their knowledge and keep up with their peers in the classroom. Sometimes, processing speed deficits do not become apparent until middle or high school when work demands ramp up, or the student begins taking standardized exams with strict time limits.

For students like Emilia, who experience increased academic challenges as they progress in school, neuropsychological evaluation can be extremely useful and effective. In this case, the purpose of neuropsychological testing aims to better understand the nature of the processing speed challenges, the impact on the child, and how to utilize strengths to overcome challenges. Students with processing speed deficits are often entitled to academic accommodations and can be quite successful with such supports in place. Testing can also be important for ruling in, or out, emerging mental health issues.

For Emilia, the following recommendations were particularly important to address in her educational planning:

-extra time on tests (including standardized exams such as the SSAT)

-the use of a computer to minimize graphomotor output demand (and access to voice-to-text software)

-help with notetaking in the classroom (copy of teacher’s notes)

-learning tools to circumvent processing speed challenges (i.e. use of a Livescribe pen which records audio as she is taking her own notes)

-putting value on quality rather than quantity of school work (e.g., when given a homework assignment in math, Emilia was required to complete every other item)

However, the most effective approach, and one of the most important outcomes made possible by neuropsychological evaluation, was explicitly teaching Emilia about her unique strengths and challenges. Children (especially middle schoolers) tend to be black and white—if they finish their test last, then they must be “dumb.” When Emilia was able to see that this was a challenge that could be overcome, especially in the context of her very impressive intellectual abilities, she was able to re-engage in school without frustration. Moreover, parents and teachers were able to better understand and address her academic challenges in a thoughtful and effective way.

 

About the Author:

Dr. Jessica Geragosian is a Licensed Psychologist in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. She has a wide range of clinical experience – in hospital, school and clinic settings – working with children and adolescents presenting with a wide range of cognitive, learning, social, and psychological challenges.

Dr. Geragosian operates under the primary belief that all children want to, and can be, successful. The primary goal of her work is to identify the child’s innate strengths, and find any underlying vulnerabilities preventing a child from achieving success. Whether the primary problem is an inability to acquire academic skills, maintain friendships, control emotions, or regulate behavior to meet expectations; she takes a holistic approach to understand the complex interplay of developmental, neurological, and psychological factors contributing to a child’s presenting challenges.

Dr. Geragosian earned her doctoral degree from William James University, before completing postgraduate training in pediatric neuropsychology at the Massachusetts General Hospital for Children at North Shore Medical Center, where a focus of her work was neuropsychological assessment of young children with developmental challenges.

To book an evaluation with Dr. Geragosian or one of our many other expert neuropsychologists, complete NESCA’s online intake form.

 

 

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, MA, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.