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504

College Myth Buster – Your Child’s 504 from High School Does Not Apply in College

By | NESCA Notes 2024

By: Kristen Simon, M.Ed, Ed.S
Transition Specialist; Psychoeducational Counselor

There can be a lot of confusion for students who have received special education services or accommodations in high school about what stays the same and what changes in college. Some high school families and staff know that if a student has received IEP services throughout school, the IEP does not travel with them to college. This is because an IEP is a document that is developed in accordance with IDEA, a special education law that affords protections to students with disabilities up until they graduate or age out of their local high school. When a student transitions to work or a college or university, this law is no longer relevant and the IEP essentially “expires.”

There is often greater confusion for families around whether colleges are required to follow 504 plans (i.e., accommodation plans) developed in high school. While it’s true that students with disabilities are protected by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, it’s important to understand that high school 504 plans also effectively “expire” once a child graduates. Students can still receive accommodations under Section 504, but they are unlikely to hear the term “504” or to have any written “plan” related to their disability or those accommodations. There are some important differences between Section 504 mandates under subpart E (which covers postsecondary institutions) and those that fall under subpart D (which covers secondary schools). The key differences are described below:

  • Eligibility: Colleges and universities will have their own process for eligibility, and students have to be determined eligible by their university – even if they had been deemed eligible for accommodations in high school. Students will usually need documentation from a doctor or a psychologist that demonstrates the presence of a disability as well as how that disability substantially limits learning.
  • Available Accommodations: Colleges don’t have any obligation to provide the same services and accommodations that students may have received in high school, and not all of the accommodations provided by high schools are available at the college level. Moreover, different accommodations may be available at different colleges because the law mandates that the college provides accommodations which are “reasonable” and effective, not the best or most expensive.
  • Shift in Delivery: Professors will not automatically provide an accommodation as was the case in high school. Students have to seek out accommodations and can register for them after they are officially enrolled. At the college or university level, the expectation is that the young adult knows what support is available to them and that they self-advocate for the accommodations they need. Also, even if a student qualifies for an accommodation, they have to make the choice to actively use that accommodation – if they don’t advocate, they won’t get it.

Students should also know that while accommodations help, they can only go so far (e.g., if you don’t understand the content, having extra time on the exam won’t help). Students should be sure to connect with disability services to hear about tutoring options, academic coaching, writing centers, counseling supports, and anything else that is offered.

Resources:

U.S. Department of Education: Students with Disabilities Preparing for Postsecondary Education

Elizabeth Cohen Hamblet Learning Disabilities Consultant website: College Disability Accommodations Information – Elizabeth C. Hamblet (ldadvisory.com)

 

About the Author

Kristen Simon, M.Ed, Ed.S, has worked with transition-aged youth as a licensed School Psychologist for more than a decade. She has extensive experience working with children and adolescents with a range of learning and social/emotional abilities. Kristen’s strengths lie in her communication and advocacy skills as well as her strengths-based approach. She is passionate about developing students’ self-awareness, goal-setting abilities, and vision through student-centered counseling, psychoeducation, social skills instruction, and executive functioning coaching. Mrs. Simon has particular interests working with children and adolescents on the Autism spectrum as well as individuals working to manage stress or anxiety-related challenges.

Mrs. Simon is an expert evaluator and observer who has extensive working knowledge of the special education process and school-based special education services, particularly in Massachusetts. She has been an integral part of hundreds of IEP teams and has helped to coordinate care, develop goals, and guide students and their families through the transition planning process. Mrs. Simon further has special expertise helping students to learn about their diagnoses and testing and the IEP process in general. She enjoys assisting students, families, and educators in understanding a student’s disability-related needs as well as the strategies that can help the student to be successful in both academic and nonacademic settings. Mrs. Simon has often been a part of teams in the years when students are initially participating in transition services, and she has helped countless students to build the skills necessary to be part of their first team meetings. She is committed to teaching students—as well as parents and educators—how to participate in student-centered team meetings and the IEP processes.

At NESCA, Mrs. Simon works as a transition specialist and psychoeducational counselor. She works with adolescents, their families, and their school communities to identify and build the skills necessary to achieve their postsecondary goals. Mrs. Simon provides transition assessment (including testing, functional evaluations, and observations), program observations and evaluations, case management and consultation, and individualized counseling and skills coaching.

 

To schedule an appointment with one of NESCA’s transition specialists, please complete our online intake form

 

NESCA is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Plainville, and Hingham, Massachusetts; Londonderry, New Hampshire; and the greater Burlington, Vermont region, serving clients from infancy through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

How to Advocate for Your Child

By | NESCA Notes 2019

By: Reva Tankle, Ph.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist

The Federation for Children with Special Needs in Boston offers a Parent Consultant Training course several times every year. I have been privileged to teach this group about Neuropsychological Assessment and the IEP Process for the past 15 years. While many people take this course to become Parent Advocates as a profession, it is just as common that the participants are trying to figure out how to best advocate for their own children.

The process always starts with a concern. Parents request an initial evaluation from either the school or a private clinician because they have a concern about their child’s development. They are looking to understand their child’s challenges, obtain a definitive diagnosis and most importantly develop a treatment plan that will ensure their child’s positive trajectory into the future. What I have learned from the many participants in this course is that they are hungry for information about what they should be doing for their children.

It is encouraging that there are so many resources available for parents to help them with some of these concerns. However, the sheer amount of information can also be overwhelming, as it can be hard to know where to start. And it is important that parents get started right away, as we know there is a great advantage in early diagnosis and intervention; especially when autism is suspected. But where does one start?

  • Assessment/Diagnosis
  • Education
  • Parent Support
  • Advocacy

If you suspect your child may be on the autism spectrum, organizations such as AANE, The Asperger/Autism Network, and Autism Speaks can help you find diagnosticians in your area. Your child’s pediatrician may also be knowledgeable about local referral sources for assessment for suspected learning or developmental issues. Finally, word of mouth referrals from those who have previously navigated the process on behalf of their own child is often another great resource to rely on.

Once there is a diagnosis, parents should educate themselves as much as possible about the needs of their child and the options available. Organizations such as AANE and Autism Speaks can provide a lot of the information parents need at this often stressful time if their child has autism. Of particular benefit, Autism Speaks offers a “100 Day Kit for the Newly Diagnosed Family of Young Children.” This step-by-step guide helps parents feel more in control and confident about how and where to start this journey.

For language-based learning disabilities, parents may find needed resources through organizations such as Decoding Dyslexia or the International Dyslexia Association. Whatever diagnosis a parent is facing on behalf of their child, there are resources to provide the education that is needed.

The internet provides so many resources to parents, which is both a blessing and a curse. How can a parent sort through it all and establish priorities? How do they avoid becoming overwhelmed? Parent Support Groups! It may seem like an overly simple solution, but the benefits of sharing with others who have gone through what you are going through are immeasurable. And not feeling like you are in this alone will give you the confidence to keep going.

Armed with a diagnosis as well as education and support, a parent is ready to advocate as needed. Organizations like the Federation for Children with Special Needs are there to help throughout the advocacy journey. Finally, a strong partnership between the child’s parents and school district is critical to ensure that the district understands the individual child, their unique needs and to know that they will work to provide the appropriate educational opportunities for the child.

It may not be an easy journey to embark on, but know there are wonderful resources out there to help make things smoother.

About the Author

Combining her experience and training in both pediatric neuropsychology and educational advocacy, Dr. Reva Tankle has particular expertise in working with families who are navigating the IEP process. Having participated in numerous team meetings over the years, Dr. Tankle is especially knowledgeable about the many ways that schools can support and accommodate students with special learning needs, information that she clearly communicates in her evaluation reports and in team meetings, if needed. She also has a great deal of experience in articulating the reasons that a student may need a program outside of the public school.

Dr. Tankle evaluates students with ADHD, learning disabilities, high functioning autism spectrum disorders, and neurological conditions, as well as children with complex profiles that are not easily captured by a single diagnostic category.

To schedule an appointment with Dr. Reva Tankle in Plainville, MA, or any of our expert neuropsychologists, please complete our online intake form

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton and Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

The Path to Eligibility

By | NESCA Notes 2019

By: Reva Tankle, Ph.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist

A child’s pediatrician is often the first professional who hears a parent’s concern that their child is struggling in school. It is comforting to know that The American Academic of Pediatrics has recently provided guidelines to pediatricians that outline the important role they can play when a child is struggling in school. The guidelines refer to pediatricians’ involvement in prevention (e.g. avoiding brain injuries, good nutrition, etc.), early recognition, diagnosis, treatment, advocacy/monitoring and referral. Regarding referral, pediatricians are asked to consider involvement of a number of subspecialties, including neuropsychologists, child psychologists, speech and language pathologists and others.

In my prior work as a Special Needs Advocate and now as a pediatric neuropsychologist, I understand how the referral to a neuropsychologist for a comprehensive evaluation can assist a parent in the Special Education eligibility process, but it is still too often an unknown for many others. To be eligible for Special Education services, a child must meet three basic criteria (1) present with a qualifying disability; (2) demonstrate a lack of effective progress in the general education setting; and (3) require specialized instruction or related services (e.g. Speech Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Psychological Services, etc.). The determination of eligibility is made by the school team that includes the parents. The school will conduct its own assessments which may provide the information needed to make a determination of eligibility. A private neuropsychological evaluation provided by the parents can also help to inform the process, by providing a diagnosis(es) as well as a deeper and more integrated look at the child’s cognitive, academic and social/emotional profile.

School evaluators do not typically provide what are considered medical diagnoses, such as ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorders or Dyslexia. A neuropsychologist can make such a diagnosis, and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation should also provide an understanding of how the disability is impacting the child’s academic, social and/or emotional development. The neuropsychologist can then relate the diagnosis to the appropriate educational disability category for the school’s consideration. A neuropsychological evaluation can also assist in determining if a child is making effective progress within the general education setting. Data obtained through standardized testing, teacher reports and observation of the student in the school setting can provide information needed to determine if the child is making progress commensurate with their potential. Finally, delineation of specific skill deficits identified in an evaluation can provide information necessary for selecting appropriate specialized methodologies or the related services the child requires to make progress.

We often hear the phrase, “It takes a village.” It certainly “takes a village” of professionals to provide the coordinated and comprehensive care that a child who is struggling in school requires. With pediatricians providing the first line of support and referrals for parents, the outside professionals, including neuropsychologists, can work with the pediatrician and in conjunction with the school staff to provide the struggling student the range of services needed to foster their academic, social and emotional development.

 

About the Author

Combining her experience and training in both pediatric neuropsychology and educational advocacy, Dr. Reva Tankle has particular expertise in working with families who are navigating the IEP process. Having participated in numerous team meetings over the years, Dr. Tankle is especially knowledgeable about the many ways that schools can support and accommodate students with special learning needs, information that she clearly communicates in her evaluation reports and in team meetings, if needed. She also has a great deal of experience in articulating the reasons that a student may need a program outside of the public school.

Dr. Tankle evaluates students with ADHD, learning disabilities, high functioning autism spectrum disorders, and neurological conditions, as well as children with complex profiles that are not easily captured by a single diagnostic category.

 

To schedule an appointment with Dr. Reva Tankle in Plainville, MA, or any of our expert neuropsychologists, please complete our online intake form

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton and Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

Back to School 101: How to Support your Child

By | NESCA Notes 2019

By: Reva Tankle, Ph.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist

 

When should I start transitioning back to the “school routine?”

The summer break should be a time for kids to have fun playing with their friends and family and enjoying new adventures and experiences. As the new school year looms, however, parents start to think about how to transition from the flexible downtime of summer to the more structured and rigid schedule of the school year. As such, they often wonder when to start the process of getting back to the school routine. Of course, it will be different for each child but, for most children, a slow transition is the best plan. Things to consider are:

  • Probably the most important routine to get back into is the bedtime and morning schedule. Parents should consider a slow transition starting 1–2 weeks before the first day of school. Move the bedtime by 10–15 minutes earlier every few days; inching closer to the school night bedtime. By the time it is the night before the 1st day of school, your child should be back to their regular bedtime. After allowing for an adequate number of hours of sleep, parents might consider waking their child up earlier in the morning, again, inching closer to the wake-up time on school days.
  • During the summer months, some children’s access to screen time might increase. Parents should consider reducing screen time during the day and especially in the evening; closer to their family’s rules for access to screens during the school year. Since many children have summertime reading to do, this might be a good time to get your kids off the screens and focused on completing their summer reading.
  • Regardless of your best intentions to transition smoothly to the school year routine, the beginning of school can be challenging for many children. Giving children, especially younger children, adequate time after school for play and ensuring the right amount of sleep will help children make the transition from summer to school.

What can I do to help this year’s teachers, specialists and therapists get to know my child as well as what’s in their IEP or 504 Plan?

If you child is in elementary school, your child will likely have one or at most two new teachers. It is a good idea to make sure the teachers are prepared to meet your child’s educational needs from the first day of school. But it is also important to recognize that it will take time for the teacher to get to know your child, and you want to make sure that you don’t overload the teachers with more information than they can handle. They will read the IEP, but that can be very overwhelming. To help them get started, you can send an email on the teachers’ first day back at school. Keep it short. Write a few sentences describing your child’s strengths and weaknesses. And then write the 2 or 3 things in the classroom that you think will be most important for your child to be successful in the upcoming year. I can’t stress enough how important it is to be short and to the point in this note. If you keep it focused on the most important information, it is more likely that the teachers will remember what you have shared.

If your child is in middle or high school, you could use a similar approach and write a short note about your child. You may choose to send it to all their content teachers or specifically to their Special Education teacher/liaison.

Finally, if your child is on a 504 Plan, it is definitely worthwhile to send a note to all your child’s teachers that informs them of the 504 Plan, listing the accommodations that are in your child’s 504 Plan. If, however, it is a very long list, you might consider writing the most important accommodations and request that they refer to the official 504 Plan for the comprehensive list. If you have a scanned copy, you could attach it to the email and make it easier for them to have access to it.

My child is anxious – how can I help my child feel more at ease?

Many children feel anxious at the start of a school year. They worry about having a new teacher and being with new classmates. To ease your child’s worries about the first day of school, here are some suggestions:

  • Often teachers start working in the school a few days before the students arrive. Call the teacher and arrange for your child to visit the classroom and have a brief 1:1 meet and greet with the child. If the classroom is set up, the teacher might be able to show your child where their desk will be. Consider taking pictures of the room, desk, locker/cubby and other locations in the school where your child may frequent throughout the school day. As the first day approaches, you can remind your child about how nice the teacher was and possibly, where their desk is, reviewing the photos, if taken. Taking away some of the “unknowns” should reduce your child’s anxiety.
  • Find out from other parents which children from last years’ class are in your child’s new class. Arrange playdates toward the end of summer so you child has some familiar faces to look for.
  • Make sure your child has a “go-to” person in the school with whom they feel comfortable. If they had a counselor the prior year, make sure that person is available to them and remind your child they can go see them if needed.
  • Most importantly, be positive and optimistic about the upcoming year. If you are calm and expect the best, your child will pick up on that and approach the new year with a positive attitude.

New School?

If your child is moving to a new school, many of the suggestions listed above will be helpful in your child’s transition to that school. Most importantly, the opportunity to tour the school and meet teachers should ease their concerns. If they are a middle or high school student, it might be helpful for them to know where their locker is and to “practice” going to their different classrooms. Again, revisit pictures, if  taken during the school visit/meet and greet. The more familiar they are with the environment, the better!

My child doesn’t have an IEP or 504, but I have concerns. What do I do?

If, as the school year begins, you have concerns from the previous year, you should be prepared to act quickly to ensure that your child doesn’t fall further behind. Within the first few days of school, you should send your child’s primary teacher a brief note that outlines your concerns. For example, you might write: “My son didn’t meet the end of the year benchmark in reading last year. I am concerned about his reading development. I would like more information from you about his reading level after you do your beginning of the year benchmark assessment.” It will be important for you to follow up with the teacher within 3–4 weeks and get the information you requested. If you remain concerned because of academic, behavioral or emotional issues you are seeing at home, you should not hesitate to request a Special Education evaluation for your child. Make your request in writing to either the Special Education coordinator at your school or the main Special Education office (find out from your school where to send it or, to be sure, send it to both).

It is critical that you don’t let too much time go by at the beginning of the year to make your request for an evaluation. The school is obligated to evaluate at your request so, don’t be dissuaded from the evaluation if you have concerns about your child’s development and their ability to make progress in school.

I wish you and your family a positive and happy return to school this year!

 

 

Reva Tankle, Ph.D.
Pediatric Neuropsychologist

Combining her experience and training in both pediatric neuropsychology and educational advocacy, Dr. Reva Tankle has particular expertise in working with families who are navigating the IEP process. Having participated in numerous team meetings over the years, Dr. Tankle is especially knowledgeable about the many ways that schools can support and accommodate students with special learning needs, information that she clearly communicates in her evaluation reports and in team meetings, if needed. She also has a great deal of experience in articulating the reasons that a student may need a program outside of the public school.

Dr. Tankle evaluates students with ADHD, learning disabilities, high functioning autism spectrum disorders, and neurological conditions, as well as children with complex profiles that are not easily captured by a single diagnostic category.

 

To schedule an appointment with Dr. Reva Tankle in Plainville, MA, or any of our expert neuropsychologists, please complete our online intake form

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton and Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.