Tag

hand eye coordination

Learning to Ride a Bike: A Rite of Passage

By | NESCA Notes 2021

By: Jessica Hanna MS, OTR/L
Occupational Therapist, NESCA

If there is one positive takeaway from the COVID-19 pandemic, it’s the ever-growing love for being outdoors. It’s spring, the flowers are blooming, the sun is out, and the air is light. Everything in our body is telling us to go outside and play.

For many kids with and without disabilities, bike riding is meaningful, liberating, and a rite of passage. Close your eyes and try to remember the first time you rode a two-wheel bike. Can you remember the color of your bike? The smell in the air? The complete joy it brought you? That was the day we all felt a bit more confident and like we grew a bit taller.

So how do we help our children achieve this meaningful occupation? The days of running behind our children while holding onto their bike seat, telling them to pedal, not to stop, and hoping for the best and that they will forgive us when we let go (when we clearly promised we would not let go!) should be far behind us. But are they?

A lot goes into learning how to ride a bike, so do not let your child give up so soon when it takes more than a couple of days, weeks, or months to get it right. Consider the following skills that are addressed in learning to ride a bike:

  • Attention and concentration
  • Bilateral coordination
  • Balance
  • Body awareness
  • Core strength
  • Hand-eye coordination
  • Motor planning
  • Postural stability
  • Sensory processing
  • Upper and lower extremity strength
  • Visual scanning

Children as young as five years of age will begin to acquire and develop the skills needed to ride a two-wheel bike, and still others may not feel ready until they are pre-teens or even into adulthood.

Before getting started, here are a couple things to consider regarding the equipment involved in learning how to ride a bike:

  • Bike – The height of the bike is a crucial element to success when learning how to ride. When seated on the bike, your child’s feet should be firmly planted on the ground. The bike seat may appear too low and the bike too small; however, this technique enables movement security, engages proper core and postural stability, and increases confidence.
  • Braking System – Be sure to learn the difference between hand brakes vs. coaster brakes (using feet to backpedal). Both braking systems have pros and cons. Hand brakes are a personal favorite. They are more flexible to position, offer better control, but require adequate hand strength and coordination to manipulate. Coaster brakes (using your feet to pedal backward to brake) use an intuitive motor planning motion for children. When you pedal forward, you go; when pedaling backward, you stop. They are helpful for children who lack the hand strength skills to wrap and squeeze their hands around a hand brake; however, they provide awkward foot positioning and the constant tendency to backpedal.
  • Helmet – Safety, Safety, Safety! When handling a bike for any occasion (i.e., walking a bike, doing balance drills on a bike, or riding a bike), it should become an automatic habit to wear a helmet. Your child should be in charge of putting on and taking off their helmet independently. There is nothing more important than wearing a helmet that fits correctly with fasteners that can be easily manipulated. When choosing a helmet, be cognizant of the type of fastener/clasp it comes with and if your child has the fine motor skills to adjust it (this skill could take time to learn).If you are unsure if your child’s helmet is a good fit, any cycling store will be more than pleased to assist in finding your child the most appropriate size. 
  • Pedals – When learning to ride for the first time, the removal of pedals should be highly considered. It provides the opportunity to address balance, core, and postural stability for both younger and older children while also increasing movement security.
  • Training Bike – Which is best…balance bikes vs. training wheels? Balance bikes are light in weight and can be introduced to children at a much younger age than a pedal bike. They promote core strength and increase motor planning, sequencing, and balance training skills, making the transition from a balance bike to a two-wheel pedal bike more fluid and easier to manage. Training wheels promote ease in learning motor planning techniques to push on pedals while providing assisted balance. It’s important to note that removing the balance component can be disadvantageous when transitioning from training wheels to a two-wheel pedal bike.

Overall, the literature supports the observation that, for children with and without disabilities, learning to ride a bike is a popular activity that increases confidence, provides opportunities for shared recreation with families and peers, and promotes social inclusion (Dunford, Bannigan, Rathmell (2016).

Several of the many clinical diagnoses of children who can ride a bike follow here; however, this list is certainly not inclusive of the many other diagnoses that do not preclude children from bike riding:

  • ADHD
  • Anxiety
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Developmental Coordination Disorder
  • General learning disability
  • Hearing impairment
  • No diagnosis

The art of bike riding can be broken down into various steps, from learning how to use the kickstand to the act of pedaling. Each step deserves attention, because through repetition and practice, confidence is achieved.

If using these tips feels difficult or is not helping your child with the level of focus and skill they need to successfully achieve their goal to use a bike, we recommend reaching out to your occupational therapist or getting an occupational therapy evaluation. If in-person direct services continue to be a concern, biking riding skills can be offered via telehealth from the comfort of  your home. Jessica offers successful biking riding drills and adaptive home exercise plans through telehealth that address the skills required to learn to ride a bike. Contact NESCA’s Director of Clinical Services Julie Robinson, OT, to learn more at: jrobinson@nesca-newton.com.

 

References
Dunford, Bannigan, Rathmell (2016) Learning to ride a bike: Developing a therapeutic intervention. Children Young People & Families Occupational Therapy Journal 20(1) 10-18

 

About the Author

Jessica Hanna has over 10 years of pediatric OT experience in conducting assessments and providing treatment of children and adolescents with a broad range of challenges and disabilities, including autism spectrum disorders, sensory processing disorders, visual impairments, cerebral palsy, executive function deficits and developmental disorders of motor function. Prior to joining NESCA, Jessica trained and worked in a variety of settings, including inpatient and outpatient hospital settings, private practice, schools and homes. She has served on interdisciplinary treatment teams and worked closely with schools, medical staff and other service providers in coordinating care. In addition, Jessica provided occupational therapy services at Perkins School for the Blind and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital pediatric inpatient unit, where she conducted comprehensive evaluations and interventions for children with a broad range of presentations.

 

To book an appointment or to learn more about NESCA’s Occupational Therapy Services, please fill out our online Intake Form, email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

Visual Motor Integration Deep Dive – Part 2

By | NESCA Notes 2020

 

By: Sophie Bellenis, OTD, OTR/L
Occupational Therapist; Real-life Skills Program Manager and Coach

Last week’s blog taught us the nuts and bolts of Visual Motor Integration. Let’s jump into the what VMI really means for students who struggle with VMI.

Research has shown a statistically significant correlation between performance on visual motor integration assessments and teachers’ assessments of early elementary school students’ reading, mathematics, writing and spelling ability (Optometry and Vision Science, 1999; Pereira, D., Araujo, R., & Braccialli, L., 2011). Now that we understand what visual motor integration is as a concept and that it is a foundational skill for academics, let’s look at some areas of education that may be difficult for children with visual motor dysfunction.

  • Written Output – Beginning in preschool, children start to learn how to draw vertical, horizontal and diagonal lines. They practice circles, squares, crosses and drawing an X. All of these are considered pre-handwriting practice. As a child moves along in their academic career, they start incorporating these movements into letters and eventually words. Children who struggle with VMI have particular difficulty recreating the images that they see. This often manifests itself in letter reversals, illegible written output and inability to judge whether their copy looks like the model or not. As children get into later grades, visual motor dysfunction may include difficulty copying information from a whiteboard, trouble staying on the line or within the space provided, and a simple lack of fluidity when writing. Tasks, such as filling out graphic organizers and brainstorming, feel tedious and tiring, as opposed to helpful.
  • Math – While math is not typically thought of as a motor-based task, substantial portions of current math curriculums rely on visual motor integration. For younger students, drawing shapes, writing equations and recognizing patterns may be particularly tough. As students get older, geometry requires them to write out proofs and draw shapes, while calculus requires graphing and drawing lines based on complex equations. Building on VMI helps students to access more than simple written output.
  • Using Classroom Tools – While this may not seem as academically focused as the other areas that are affected by VMI, classroom tools are frequently used throughout the school day. Scissors, a stapler, a hole puncher and a mouse/keyboard all require some level of visual motor function.

It’s difficult to briefly sum up all of the ways that students are incorporating their visual motor integration skills into a typical school day, or realistically a day in general. They use these skills without even realizing it, which means they unintentionally practice them all day. VMI is something that can continue to develop all through the lifespan. Artists pick up new tools and build mastery, adult calligraphy classes have become a new fad as people learn to modify and improve their handwriting, and even Tom Brady continues to work on perfecting that spiral. Targeted intervention can help children build on their foundation and find confidence in their abilities. If you feel that VMI might be affecting your child’s education, reach out to an occupational therapist and see if they can help you better understand your child’s individual profile.

 

References

Optometry and Vision Science: March 1999 – p 159-163. Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/optvissci/Abstract/1999/03000/Relationship_between_Visual_Motor_Integration.15.aspx

Pereira, D., Araujo, R., & Braccialli, L. (2011) Relationship between visual-motor integration ability and academic performance. Journal of Human Growth and Development, 21(3), 808-817. Retrieved_from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317462934_Relationship_analysis_between_visual-motor_integration_ability_and_academic_performance

 

About the Author

Dr. Sophie Bellenis is a Licensed Occupational Therapist in Massachusetts, specializing in educational OT and functional life skills development. Dr. Bellenis joined NESCA in the fall of 2017 to offer community-based skills coaching services as a part of the Real-life Skills Program within NESCA’s Transition Services team. Dr. Bellenis graduated from the MGH Institute of Health Professions with a Doctorate in Occupational Therapy, with a focus on pediatrics and international program evaluation. She is a member of the American Occupational Therapy Association, as well as the World Federation of Occupational Therapists. Having spent years delivering direct services at the elementary, middle school and high school levels, Dr. Bellenis has extensive background with school-based occupational therapy services.  She believes that individual sensory needs and visual skills must be taken into account to create comprehensive educational programming.

To book an appointment or to learn more about NESCA’s Occupational Therapy Services, please fill out our online Intake Form, email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

Visual Motor Integration Deep Dive – Part 1

By | NESCA Notes 2020

By: Sophie Bellenis, OTD, OTR/L
Occupational Therapist; Real-life Skills Program Manager and Coach

If your child is currently receiving occupational therapy services in either a sensory clinic or a school-based setting, it is likely that you have heard the phrase “visual motor integration (VMI).” It has possibly been described as the ability to “see something and then recreate it with a pencil,” or “coordination between the eyes and the hands to create an intended outcome.” While these phrases or simple definitions do give some insight into the skill, there are layers to understanding the intricacies of VMI and how it may affect someone in a classroom setting. Why is visual motor integration important? Why does this skill affect a child’s ability to successfully access their curriculum? And really, why do occupational therapists seem to be so focused on this foundational skill?

Let’s start by dissecting the phrase visual motor integration, as each word truly highlights an important aspect.

Visual.

In this sense, “visual” refers to the functional visual skills and visual perception. Functional visual skills include being able to follow along a horizontal, vertical or diagonal line with one’s eyes, as well as being able to account for depth by focusing on objects that are both close to the face (a book) and far away (the whiteboard). Clinically, these skills are referred to as visual tracking and convergence respectively. Visual perception is the brain’s ability to interpret the data that the eyes are seeing and turn it into meaningful information. This is not simply the ability to clearly see something, a skill that is often assessed by school nurses or optometrist. It is the ability to understand it. Visual perception is complex in its own right, but the specific details are for another time, or potentially another blog.

Motor.

Similar to visual skills, “motor” refers to one’s overall motor skills. This includes:

  • Fine motor control – the ability to use the small muscles in the hands to make coordinated movements;
  • Gross motor – the ability to use the large muscles in the body; and
  • Postural stability – the ability to create a supported foundation when sitting or standing; a child’s postural stability is hugely affected by their core muscles and their position when sitting.

Integration.

Some students have visual motor dysfunction because of a deficit in either their visual skills or their motor skills. They find using these two skills together difficult simply because one foundational piece is already affected. Conversely, some students have trouble with VMI simply because of this integration piece. Being able to use these two skills in conjunction with intention and coordination is a skill within itself. Through standardized assessment and clinical observation, occupational therapists should be able to determine the root cause of a child’s VMI dysfunction. This helps to guide appropriate intervention and accommodation. In some ways, visual motor integration is similar to hand-eye coordination.  Being able to recreate something that a child sees, such as a square, the letter “A” or a horizontal line is truly using VMI skills.

Next week, we’ll dive further into VMI and how it serves as a foundational skill for academics, its impact on learning and the output students produce.

 

About the Author

Dr. Sophie Bellenis is a Licensed Occupational Therapist in Massachusetts, specializing in educational OT and functional life skills development. Dr. Bellenis joined NESCA in the fall of 2017 to offer community-based skills coaching services as a part of the Real-life Skills Program within NESCA’s Transition Services team. Dr. Bellenis graduated from the MGH Institute of Health Professions with a Doctorate in Occupational Therapy, with a focus on pediatrics and international program evaluation. She is a member of the American Occupational Therapy Association, as well as the World Federation of Occupational Therapists. Having spent years delivering direct services at the elementary, middle school and high school levels, Dr. Bellenis has extensive background with school-based occupational therapy services.  She believes that individual sensory needs and visual skills must be taken into account to create comprehensive educational programming.

To book an appointment or to learn more about NESCA’s Occupational Therapy Services, please fill out our online Intake Form, email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.

 

Neuropsychology & Education Services for Children & Adolescents (NESCA) is a pediatric neuropsychology practice and integrative treatment center with offices in Newton, Massachusetts, Plainville, Massachusetts, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, serving clients from preschool through young adulthood and their families. For more information, please email info@nesca-newton.com or call 617-658-9800.